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Full text of "A popular California flora, or Manual of botany for beginners. Containing descriptions of flowering plants growing in central California, and westward to the ocean. With illustrated introductory lessons, especially adapted to the Pacific coast"

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'Gray Herbarium 


August 1970 









By VOLNEY rattan, 

Teacheb of NaturaIj Sciences in the Gibls' High School, 
San Francisco. 

tl)irtJ (gDttton, Ueutseti antJ (Snlargel^. 




ne;w ymoL 


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



The first edition of this book was prepared for the press during the evenings and Satur- 
days of the month of January, 1879. The hope that an abler hand would undertake the 
task deferred the beginning, and the needs of a class of over five hundred pupils hastened 
the completion of a work that would have been more slowly elaborated had the reputa- 
tion of the author been the only consideration. The errors incident to such rapid work 
were as far as possible corrected the following year, in a second edition, which was pre- 
faced as follows: 

"I have endeavored to prepare an inexpensive manual which will enable beginners in 
botany to determine the names of all plants with conspicuous flowers that may be found 
growing wild in the Central Valley of California from Visalia to Marysville, and through 
the Coast Ranges from Monterey to Ukiah. Over six hundred species of plants are 
characterized by descriptions condensed, for the most part, from Vol. I of the 'California 
Botany,' and Sereno Watson's 'Revision of the North American Liliacese.' Valuable 
material has also been obtained from a 'Revision of the Eriogone^e,' by Torrey & Gray, 
Gray's 'Synoptical Flora of Xorth America,' and 'Gray's Manual of Botany.' 

"Plants belonging to the Parsnip, Aster, Willow, Oak, and Pine Families, are not de- 
scribed, being mostly too difficult for beginners, or of little interest to them. The Intro- 
ductory Lessons are designed to show the learner how to study the growth of plants, aa 
well as to give such knowledge of their structure as will enable him to understand the 
descriptions in the Flora. The 'Glossary of Generic and Specific Names ' will enable the 
student to make appropriate common names for most plants. 

"To the authors whose works have furnished the materials for this book is due the 
credit for whatever of excellence it may possess; to the compiler, who may, in a few 
cases, have misrepresented these authors, attaches the blame for most of its defects. 

"I am indebted for suggestions and criticisms to Prof. E. W.Hilgard, Dr. C. L. Ander- 
son, Prof. W. H. Brewer and Dr. Asa Gray. To the latter I am especially grateful for 
his kind interest in uiy humble work. " 

One third of the second edition was new matter, and only about half of the book in its 
present form is printed from the stereotype plates of the first edition. The newer half 
of the work, although necessarily partaking somewhat of the nature of patchwork, is as 
good as I can make it. My drawings upon wood have been faithfully engraved, and, 
though claiming no artistic merit, will, I trust, prove helpful to the learner. With few 
exceptions — always noted in the text — the plants, or parts of plants, are represented of 
the natural size. Besides the more obvious improvements, an entirely new Analytical 
Key replaces the old one; and our most common oaks are described. 


Assuming that facts in natural history are useless if merely memorized from the book, 
and that the student must earn his knowledge by observing and experimenting, it is ob- 
viously best to encourage him at first by showing him how to try simple experiments 
■whose results are easily interpreted. Seeds are the best material for such experiments, 
since the phenomena connected with their germination are not only easily observed, but 
deeply interesting. For this reason what may seem a disproportionate space in the Intro- 
ductory Lessons is devoted to "The Beginnings of Plant Life." There are no lessons of 
greater educational value than those given to observing eyes by the growth of a plant 
from the first quickening of the dry embryo to the putting forth of flowers and the ripen- 
ing of fruit. A sunny window in each school-room should be devoted to these beautiful 
object lessons of nature. It must not be forgotten, however, that since most young peo- 
ple are eager to learn the names of plants whose flowers they admire, it is best to devote 
most of the spring months to the study of Systematic Botany. The child's "What is 
it?" and the finger pointing to the plant in bloom, show plainly with what to begin the 
study of botany. Baron Frederick von ISIueller says in his preface to an elementary 
■work upon the botany of Victoria, Australia: "An experience of nearly forty years has 
convinced the author that the use of a grammar-like publication for initiating into a 
study of x)lants is alike wearisome to teacher and children, and that as a rule, subject to 
rare exceptions, the knowledge acquired from the ordinary first elementary works on 
botany is as quickly lost as gained. The only method of rendering such studies agreeable 
and lastingly fruitful consists in arousing an interest of the young scholars in the native 
plants of their locality, to afford them all possible facilities to recognize and discriminate 
all the various plants within reach, to lead them by observations thus started to com- 
prehend the limits of specific forms, of generic and ordinal groups, and to conduct them 
afterwards to the more difficult study of special anatomy and physiology of plants." 

Teachers and learners are here reminded of the importance of carefully writing out 
the details of experiments tried, as well as descriptions of what has been observed. In 
the words of Dr. Asa Gray: " The naturalist must not only observe that he may describe, 
but describe if he would observe." 

It will be noticed — and the fact has formed the basis of a criticism — that the descrip- 
tions of genera and species in this Flora are very brief; as a rule only the contrasting 
characteristics being given, since more is calculated to confuse rather than help the be- 
ginner. Dr. Gray says: "In floras, as in more general works, abridged descriptions or 
diagnoses suffice — indeed, are preferable in all cases where the region is pretty well 
explored, and where materials can be thoroughly elaborated." 

Although the Flora is designed especially for students in Central California, it will be 
found only a little less useful to those studying as far south as Los Angeles, or as far 
north as the Columbia. The Introductory Lessons are suited to the entire Pacific Coast. 

San Francisco, January, 1882. V. K. 





1, If the first rain of the wet season is followed by warm, sunny- 
weather, specks of green will soon api^ear among the dry stems of last 
year's weeds; and in fence corners or other eddy nooks where summer 
winds have drifted seeds and covered them with dust, you may find i3er- 
fect mats of baby plants. With a shovel skim off a few square inches of 
this plant-bearing soil, and carefully examine it. Except a few green 
needles, Avhich you recognize as spears of grass, most of these little plants 
seem to consist of white stems, which split at the top into pairs of green 
leaves. Looking sharply, you may find between each pair of leaves a 

1 . Seed of Bxir-clover just be- 
for<! it appears above grouud. 2. 
Same three days older. 3 . Mus- 
tard. 4. liur clover ghowing the 
first and second plumule leaves; 
the former simple (apparently), 
the 1 itter with three leaflets. 5. 
Mallows (Malvaborealis), show- 
ing the long-petoled see 1 leaves 
{Cotyledons , and one plumule 
leaf unfolded. 6- Filaria (Ero- 
dium), with lobed or sub-com- 
pound seed leaves. 

tiny bud; or, in the older plants, this may have grown other leaves, which 
curiously enough are not like tlie first two, (Figures 1 to 6). Searching 
through the shovelful of earth you will likely find plants in all stages of 
growth, from swollen and sprouting seeds to stems, Avhich are just push- 
ing their bowed leaf-heads into the sunlight. Here, then, is material 
from which you may learn how plants grow; a lesson, remember, which 
no text-book or schoolmaster can teach 3'ou. It will be easier, however, 
since most of these early wild plants come from very small seeds, to take 


your first lessons from plants wliich have larger beginnings. You should 
first study — 

2. The Plant in the seed. Get many kinds of large seeds, such as 
peas, beans, squash-seeds, buckeyes, castor beans, corn, etc. Put them 
in water that they may become soft enough to be readily separated into 
their parts. In a day or two starchy seeds, such as peas or beans, will be 
in good condition. 

3. First take a bean and make drawings showing the outlines as seen 
sidewise and edgewise. Any marks that seem to be found on all beans 
must be i3ut down in the drawing, but do not bother about the shading. 
These attempts to represent what you see will lead to the discovery of 
certain marks on the concave edge of the bean, the meaning of which 
you may sometime learn by studying the growth of the seed in the pod. 
After you have thus studied the outside of the seed, slit it along the back 
with a sharp knife and take out the kernel. It readily splits into halves 
■which are held together near one end by a short stem. Upon breaking 
them apart the stem sticks to one half, and you discover growing from the 
inner end a pair of tiny embracing-leaves. Make another drawing and 
compare it with Fig. 7. Presently it will be 
clear to you that this entire kernel is a little 
plant. The plant in this dry apparently lifeless 
first stage of its existence is called — 

4. The Embryo, or Gsrm. This, as you have 
seen, is made up of the stem, or Radicle ; the 
thick parts called Cotyledons, and the two-leaved 

- _ ^T , „, , „ . . 7. One cotyledon of a bean witb 

bud, or Flumule. ihe embryo or a pea is Sim- the radicle and larg^ plumitle. 8. 
.,..,,„, 1 1 J.1 1 1 • Embryo of a peanut, a iuu. r side 

liar to that oi a bean, but the plumule is more of one cotyledon with theradida 

-,.,,, 1 1 XT o J. i-i, i. • 1,1. a-'id plumule; b, outer side of the 

decidedly a bud. Jb ig. 8 represents the straight game, 
embryo of a peanut. The radicle is not bent around against the cotyle- 
dons as in the x^ea and bean, and the plumule shows two divided leaflets. 
The cotyledons of the squash are thin and the plumule is scarcely visible. 
Lu2:)ine, though its seeds resemble beans, has a long radicle and a minute 
plumule. The buckeye seems to have a long radicle, bub since it splits 
nearly to its point, where 3^011 will find a large plumule, it is evident that 
the api^arent radicle is mostly made up of the cotyledon stems (petioles). 



5. Albuminous Seeds. Remove the shell-like coat of a castor bean, 
and carefull}' split it flatwise. What at first seems to be a large plumule 
proves to be free from the rest of the kernel, and with care you may be 

9. Peedof Willow 01 nig. 
ger Fine cut so as to sliow 
tiie St ra gilt embryo In tlie 
center of tao oily":>lbiimeu. 
a tind />, embryo taken out, 
theciitvledouR (/;) sepaiatctl. 
10. Seedoftlie: astor-bHan. 
a, the broad thin embr\o 
nea ly divi ling the albu- 
rn u; 6, the embryo removed 
and the leaf-like cotyledons 
separated. 11. Se^d of Da- 
tura iBrugmansia\ showing at a the bent embryo in the scanty albumen; h, the embryo taken out and 
the slender cotyledons separated. 12. A grain of coffee, a, the straight embryo. 

able to get it out whole (Fig. 10.) It is a straight embryo with beautifully 
veined, leaf-like cotyledons, embedded in a white, oily substance, which 
makes up the mass of the kernel. This substance is called Albumen, a 
name which applies to anything inclosed with the embryo by the seed 
coats. Peas, beans, acorns, nuts, and most large seeds have no albumen. 
Carefully cut thin slices from a well soaked coffee grain until its embryo 
appears as rejoresented in Fig. 12. The horny, folded albumen makes 
up most of the seed. A similar, but smaller embr^^o, may be found in 
the brain-shaped, fleshy albumen of the ivy seed. The embr3'o of the 
Tree-Datura, or Stramonium, is shown in Fig. 11. 
It has slender cotyledons, folded down against a 
thick radicle, the whole embedded in tough, fleshy 
albumen. Take the embr^^o of a Morning-Glory 
seed and pick the bits of transparent, jelly-like 
albumen out of the pockets in the crumpled coty- 
ledons. An attempt to flatten out the cotyledons 
will probably result in something like b, fig. 13, 
wdiich may lead you to suppose that the coty- 
ledons are separately crumpled, which is not the 
case. They stick closely together by their inner 
faces, as do the cotyledons of other seeds j^oa have 
examined, and they are crumpled as one; but, being 
notched at the end, they readily split down the 
center. Buckwheat seeds will give you some trouble 

13. Morning - Glory 
just appearing above the 
ground with thi- seed coat 
sticking to tLie cotyle- 
dons, a, the swollen 
seed; b, embryo, with 
the crumpled cotyle- 
dons 6. lit down the 
middle in the attempt 
to flatten them. 

Indeed, it will 


be much easier to make out the exact shapes and positions of the em- 
bryos in most albuminous seeds after they have begun to grow. 

Monocotyledonous Embryos. Corn, wheat, oats, and possibly a 
few other seeds in your collection, are different in j)lan from anj^ yet 
described. In corn the soft portion called the chit is the embryo. Wheat 
and oats have smaller but similar embryos. You cannot easily distin- 
guish the parts of these embryos, but you can, at least, determine that 
they have not two cotyledons. Really they have one cotyledon, and are 
therefore said to be Monocotyledonous. "When you study the growing 
seeds you will see how widely they differ from seeds which have — 

Dicotyledonous Embryos. These are embryos, which, like the bean, 
have two cotyledons. A few plants belonging to the Pine Family 

Polycotyledonous Embryos. Fig. 12 shows the embryo of the 
common Willow or Digger Pine, which has more than two cotyledons in 
a whorl at the top of the radicle. 

The Germination of Seeds. Plant the remainder of your seeds — 
those of a kind together — in boxes or pots of sand, or any kind of loose 
soil you can get. Keep this little experimental garden in a warm i^lace, 
where it can get a bit of sunshine, and water it daily. At intervals of 
three or four days dig up one of each kind of seed, and, after careful 
examination, make drawings to illustrate the successive stages of growth. 
It is of the greatest importance that you repeatedly attempt to draw 
what you see; it is of the least importance that your drawings are pretty. 
You will learn, among many interesting facts, that most seeds 
are pushed up to the surface of the ground by the growth of the radicle. 
There the seed-coats drop off (except that in seeds without albumen the 
cotyledons are apt to slip out of their coats on the way up); the cotyledons 
spread apart, become longer and broader, and turn green; lastly, the 
plumule becomes a leafy stem. Meanwhile, roots grow from the lower 
end of the radicle. Some cotyledons, like those of the pea, do not ap- 
pear aboye ground, but send the plumule up. The seeds of Big-root — 
a pest which grows in nearly every field — behave in a remarkable manner. 
The nut-like seeds drop from their prickly pods in June or July, and 
soon become covered with leaves. The rains of November and December 
cause them to sprout, as represented at d. The mimic radicle— really a 



tube formed by the united petioles, 
or stems, of the thick cotyledons, 
and only tipped by the radicle — 
penetrates the ground to a depth, 
usually, of four or five inches. The 
plumule meanwhile, as shown in f, 
remains dormant in the bottom of 
the tubular sprout. "When the pe- 
tiole growth ceases, the radicle grows 
rapidly by absorbing the nourish- 
ment stored in the cotyledons, and 
becomes a tuber. Meanwhile the 
j)lumule begius its upward growth, 
splitting the petioles apart, and usu- 
ally escaping from between them, as 
shown in the figure beloW' c. In this 
wonderful way the plumule bud is 
deeply planted together with nour- 
ishment (stored in the radicle) which, 
if necessary, can be used to aid its 
first growth. The reason for this curious behavior is obvious, when we 
know that ground squirrels are fond of these seeds, and that a severe 
frost will kill the young plant. If the seeds wait till warm weather to 
sprout, hungry rodents may find them; if they germinate early, and in 
the manner of other seeds. Jack Frost may nip them."^ 

* Dr. Asa Gray, who first evperimented with these seeds, found them to grow as represented at a, in 
i;he figure [reduced one fourth from Fig. 43, Botanical Text-book, edition of 1879]. Evidently on 
accoui.t of s ime obstruction, probably the bottom of a small pot, the seeds were elevated two or three 
inches above the surface of the soil [the dotted lice S represents the surface of the ground for figures 
a, h, and c]. My experiments with seeds planted in shallow boxes gave very different results — shovra 
at h, which is a reduced copy of Pig. 14 of second edition. The plants came up about four inches from 
where the seeds were planted, the plumule being pushed laterally that distance by the elongati n of the 
cotyledon petioles. Such inexplicable behavior stimulated to further observation, which resulted in 
the discovery that naturally plan;ed seeds, unhampered by boxes cr pots, usually grow as represented 
at c and d. In one instance a sprout measured seven inches Jrom the plumule to the cotyledons! The 
hairs at e probably help the sprout to penetrate the soil, by fastening on to the surface crust. Curiously 
enough, growing sprouts underground frequently avoid obstacles without touching them. 


a. Lupinus micrantlius; 
the first p umule leaf on 
the left. b. Lupinus ar- 
hortus.asit appears when 
grown in sand; the root- 
hairs are ladencd 
B.nd. c. Lupinus densi- 
fljrus. d. The same, after 
the cotyledons are fully 
developed, and the plu- 
mule has appeared. 

Lupines or- 
dinarily grow as 
represented in the 
cut at a, but a com- 
mon white-flower- 
ed kind presents at the end of a month's 
growth the queer appearance shown at d. At 
first the sprouting seeds appear to be like 
those of other lupines (see Fig. c), but when 
the cotyledons open, they are seen to be united 
by their broad bases. For two or three weeks the 
cotyledons enlarge; not only becoming broader, but 
thicker; yet we look in vain for a trace of the plu- 
liiule. Meanwhile a white pustule has been growing, 
which finally bursts and discloses the partly grown 
leaves of the missing bud, which has all this time 
been hidden in the thick stem below the cotyledons! 
Now, the tough leathery skin of these cotyledons is 
proof against the nightly frosts that prevail at this 
season of the year (December), so they go on i^re- 
paring food from the air with which to feed the 
tender plumule, until it also is strong enough to face c 

Jack Frost. If you carefully examine these seeds in various 
stages of their growth, you will learn that the plumule is at 
the bottom of a short tube formed by the united petioles of 
the cotyledons. Sometimes the plumule breaks out through 



the side of this tube below the cotj-ledons, instead of 
bursting through between them. 

Do not fail to see for yourself how squash 
embr3'0s pvy open their tough coats. Soon after the 
sprout has gained a foothold in the soil, a little knob 
grows on the side of the radicle so as to split more 
widely open the point of the seed coat, as s'lown in Fig. c. 
Then tbe radicle stem between the knob and the cotyledons, 
by growing, pries the seed still wider open, as seen at 6 below. 
Finally, by continued growth, the cotyledons are pulled out 
of the seed coat and upward to the surface of the ground, 
where they expand, and become pretty good leaves. Seeds 
jDlanted edgewise, which of course could rarely happen in nature, can not 
thus free themselves of their seed coats, and it has been proved by a 
French botanist (M. Flahault) that seeds which come up with their coats 
on do not thrive. The seed at b in the figure was first planted the other 
side up. It was turned over when the knob on the right had begun to open 
the seed. The radicle, which then pointed directly upward, gradually 
straightened, bent downward, and finally the second knob grew, by the 
help of which the seed leaves were in a fair way to get out when the draw- 
ing was made. Some native California plants get 
out of their coats in a similar manner. 

Germination of Albuminous Seeds. 
You have observed that when seeds without al- 
bumen send their cotyledons above ground, the 
seed coats are usually lieft behind, but the albu- 
minous seeds named in paragraph 5 retain their 
seed coats often for several days after they come 
up. Examine the coats after they are thrown off, 
and you will find none of the albumen which 
formed the larger part of their contents before 
germination. The enlarged cotyledons tell what 
has become of it, and it is now plain why the 
coats were retained. 



q h 

a. Section of a seed of Pseonia Brownii, showing the small emb-yo at the right m the copious albu- 
men. 6. The embryo removed and the cotyledons separated, c. The germinating Feed. d. The same, 
with the seed coats removed t > show the leaf-like cotyledons, e. Plumule bud, or real end of ne ut). 
ward-growing stem . /. The first plumule leaf as it appears above ground, the terminal bud ye-, dormant 
under ground, g. Feed of Pinus Sabiniana (Digger, Willow, or Xut Pine) soon after it ac)pears above 
ground, h. Same, with the seed coats removed to show the 14 cotyledons. See Fig. 9, p. vii 

You must have wondered why the cotyledons of a bean, which 
never become leaf-like, should appear above ground. It is equally strauge 
that the albuminous seeds of the peony should behave in the reverse 
way. As shown in the cut {a and b), the embryo is veiy small. In 
germination the plumule comes up while the cotyledons become decidedly 
leaf-like, and fill the shell which has been emptied of its albumen to feed 
them and the plumule. These thin, veiny seed leaves could certainly do 
better w^ork above ground than those of most lupines, 3'etthey never come 
uj). There is another curious thing about the growth of peony seeds, 
which you may try to discover. 

When the buckwheat and cotton seeds have begun to sprout, 
you can study their embryos. Note how the thin, broad cotyledons of 
the former are folded once and rolled up with a layer of snow-white 
starch; and how the speckled seed leaves of the latter are folded along 
the center, then outwardly back, and finally crumpled endwise to make 
them fit coats too short for them. Maple seeds have curiously crumpled 
and folded cotyledons. Indeed, all seeds have interesting lessons to 
teach us. 

Germination of Monoeotyledonous Seeds. The seeds named 



15. Germinating corn . 16. Wheat. 17. Wild- 
oats ; a, colorless sheath inclosing the first plu- 
mule-leaf 6; c, the twisteJ and bent beard by 

in paragraph 6 do not clearly show 
their embryos in germination, but they 
are readily enough distinguished from 
dicotyledons. The downward growing 
sprouts are several instead of one, and 
the upward growing sprout is like a 
rolled grass leaf (Figs. 15 to 17). By 
tasting of the growing seeds you can 
discover what the starchy albumen is 
changed to before it is fit food for the 
young plant. It must be remembered 
that only the grass-like monoctyledons 
grow as here represented. If possible, 
get Lily seeds, Iris seeds, etc. 

11. If you examine seeds and study 
their growth as you have been directed, 

VOU will hive the evidence of your own means of which it is able to travel to cracks 

eyes that an embryo is a plant in a i- the ground and thus plant itself . 
sort of sleeping state from which it may be aroused to activity by moist- 
ure and warmth. It will be evident that the radicle is a stem; that 
the cotyledons correspond to leaves, and that the plumule is a bud 
from which is to grow all the above-ground portion of the plant. Re- 
member, that if these, or any other statements concerning the structure 
and behavior of plants, are not confirmed by your own judgment upon 
what you have yourself observed, they are useless to you, except as guides 
pointing to what you are to find. To memorize these statements of facts 
is to secure the husks, not the kernels, of knowledge. Plants themselves 
must teach j'ou how they grow. The book can only show you how to 
question them and how to interpret their answers. Do not fail to care- 
fully compare the results of all your experiments; for in this way you 
can decide what are general or usual facts, and what are exceptional. 
The latter should be closel}' investigated, since it is probable that there 
is a reason for all unusual as well as usual behavior of plants. 



Steins. "While awaiting the development of germs in your experi- 
mental garden, you can study plants which have already reached maturity 
in wild gardens. Go out and dig up the first plant — not too large — that 
you find in blossom. I will sujDpose that you have found the very com- 
mon Filaria (also called Pin-clover; and children call the curious seeds 
with twisted tails, clocks). Its parts are Roots, Stem, Leaves, and Flowers. 
(Some time, if you continue studying Botany, it will be proved to you 
that flowers are forms of stems, or stem-branches.) 

Crush the stem. It is made up of stringy fibers and a soft sub- 
stance filled with juice. The former is generally called Fibrous Tissue 
or Wood ; the latter. Cellular Tissue. The lower part of the stem and 
the upper part of the root — the older portions of the plant — contain 
more wood than the branches and the rootlets, while the leaves have only 
net-like skeletons of wood. It would be interesting to study these tissues 
with the aid of a microscope, and thus become acquainted with the inner- 
most structure of plants; but for the present it will be sufficient if you 
can distinguish, in a general way, wood from cellular tissue. 

Cut the stem squarely across near the uj^per end, and from one 
piece take a thin slice. Stick this on a pin and hold it up to the light. 
It is nearly transparent, excej)t a green ring of skin outside and a ring 
of white dots inside. The latter are cut ends of woody fibers w^hich run 
lengthwise of the stem. Make a similar section of the lower part of the 
stem and you will find a continuous ring in place of the dots, showing 
that in the older part the fibers have become so numerous as to form a 
hollow cylinder of wood. The inclosed cellular tissue is called the Pith. 

Exogens .and Endogens. If the stem lives year after year there will 
be added successive layers of wood outside of the first one. Such stems 
are woody, and if they grow many years become Bushes, Shrubs, or Trees. 
Plants that grow in this way are called Exogens. Examine Asparagus, 
Soap-root, Iris, or any Lily and you will find the wood fibers scattered 
irregularly through the stems. These plants are Endogens. All our native 


trees and most other plants are exogeDS. Palm-trees, Centurj-plants, 
grasses, and the "small grains," are endogens. 

Herbs are plants whose stems die, at least to the ground, after 
they have blossomed and matured fruit. These are Annuals when their 
lives are limited to one season; Bieimiah when they die the secoud year 
— not producing fruit the iirst year; Perennials when they live on year 
after j'ear, their stems dying annually down to the ground. The under- 
ground portions of such stems are c.illed — 

Rootstocks. This name apjolies more particularly to such stems as 
grow nearl}^ horizontally under ground, or become thick and fleshy with 
nutritious matter, which enables the plant to make rapid first growths 
each j-ear. A rootstock can usually be distinguished from a true root 
by its bearing buds. 

Bulbs are formed by a peculiar bud growth in which the leaves or 
their bases become very thick and fleshy, with a store of nourishment, 
while the stem grows in diameter, but scarcely at all in length. 

Coaled, or Tunicaled Bulbs are those in which the leaves form a 
succession of envelopes, as in the onion. If the leaves or leaf-bases are 
narrow, as in the lily, the bulb is Scaly. 

Conns resemble bulbs, but are solid, and have more the nature of 
Tubers, which are the thickened ends of slender, branching, under- 
ground stems, as potatoes, ground artichokes, etc. 

Leaves. Collect the leafy stems of many kinds of plants. Ob- 
serve the arrangement of the leaves on the stems. A few like Erodium 
(Filaiia), the Catchfly, Pink, Fuchsia, Mint, etc., have Opposile leaves. 
Possibl}' you may find a Collinsia, or stem of Cleavers, with the leaves in 
WJiorls of three or more. Most plants have Alternale leaves. You will 
find some plants like Plantain, with a bunch of leaves growing from the 
ground, but no leafy stems. Such leaves come from rootstocks, and are 
said to be Radical. Plantain, Dodecatheou, Primrose, etc. have the leaves 
all radical. Man^^ perennial herbs have radical leaves, as well as ordi- 
nary stein leaves, and these usually differ more or less from the stem 

Observe that stems and branches end in buds or flowers, and that 



tliere is usually a bud, or brauch, or a flower at tlie base of a leaf be- 
tween it aud the stem from which it grows. 

Buds and flowers at the ends of stems or branches, are Terminal ; 
when between the stems and leaves, Axillary. 

Examine the leaf of a Yiolet or Pansy. You can readily distin- 
guish three parts: A broad Blade ; a stem or Petiole, and a j^air of appen- 
dages at the base of the j^etiole called Stipules. The latter in the Pansy 
are leaf-like. Sometimes they are mere scales, aud frequently there are 
none at all. The petiole may be wanting, also; the leaf is then said to 
be Sessile. Leaves with but one blade are — 

Simple Leaves. The illustrations (Figures 18 to 32) show the 
princi23al forms of simple leaves or leaflets of compound leaves. Care- 
fully compare the blades of your leaves with these shapes. If the leaf 
in hand does not correspond with any of the figures, you ma}" describe it 
by combining the descriptive words, or hj adding a word. A leaf, for 
examj^le, too broad to be lanceolate, and narrower than ovate, if about 
half way between the two forms, is Ovate-lanceolate or Lance-ovate; the 
first, if nearer ovate; the latter, if nearer lanceolate. Or, if merely a lit- 
tle broader than lanceolate, we may say it is Broadly-lanceolate ; when more 
slender. Narrowly-lanceolate ; if slender and nearly as broad in the middle 
as nearer the base, it is Linear-lanceolate, etc. So, too, there are iuterme- 

18 19 

Forms of Leavfs. — 18 

20 21 

Linear. 1 9 
Hastate ( Spear-shapedj 

22 23 24 

Oblong. 20. EUipticaL 21- Orbicular. 22- Peltate 
Sagittate (Arrow-sliaped). 

(Shield-shaped). 28. Hastate (Spear-shapedj. 24- 

diate forms described by such terms as : Oblong-lanceolate ; Narrowly-ellip- 
tical; Broadly-elliptical — which approaches orbicular; Broadly-cordate — 



"which becomes reniform if the apex, is rounded, etc. Ohovate ; Oblance- 
olate ; Obcordate, etc., apply to forms the reverse of ovate, lanceolate, etc. 

25 26 

27 28 29 30 

Forms of Leaves. — 25. Lanceolate, 
shaped). 29. Cordite (Heart-shaped), 
shaped'. 3 2. Hastate (Spear-shaped) . 32a. Aiiriculate (Eared) base 

31 32 33a 

23. Oblanceolate. 27. SpaUilate. 28. Ovate (Egg- 
30. Reniforin_( Kidney-shaped). 31. Falcate (Sickie- 

Apexes of Leaves. There are terms descriptive of the apexes (the 
upper ends) of leaves. Fig. 18 has a Cuspidate apex; Fig. 19, Notched or 
Emarginate ; Figures 23, 24, 29, Acute; Fig. 25, Acuminate; Fig. 26, 

Margins of Leaves. All these forms are represented as having 

Leaf IMargins.— 3 3 . Serrate. 34. Dentate. 35. Crenate. 36- Wavy. 37. Sinuate. 38. Incised. 
39. Erose. 

entire or nearly entire margins, but the margins may be notched or cut 
in various ways. Figures 33 to 39 will assist you in describing the mar- 
gins of 3'our leaves. Here, also, yo\x will find it necessary to combine ad- 



jectives or use adverbs. Leaves raay be Finely-serrate or Coarsely-serrate ; 
and Dentate, Crenate, etc., may be similarly modified. 

'^0. Tinnately ]obed 1-af, of White Oak fQuercus lobata). 41- rinnately parted leaf of Nemo- 
philii aurita (Lobes ret orse) 4'?. Pinnate leif of Krodium moschatum. 43. Palmately lobed 
leaf of Muide. 44. Palmately parted leaf of Viola lobata. 

Lobed Leaves. These may be P innately or Palmately lobed, de- 
peDdiiig upoQ whether there is more than one rib proceeding from the 



base of the leaf. Fig. 40 represents a pinnately lobed leaf; Fig. 43, 
palmately lobed. "When leaves are deeply lobed, as in Figures 41 and 44, 
they are said to be Parted. Divided leaves are cut quite to the midrib if 
pinnately divided, or to the end of the petiole when palmately divided. 
Cleft leaves have the sinuses between the lobes sharp as in Fig. 38. When 
leaves are pinnately cleft about half way to the midrib they are said to be 
Pinnatifid. If the lubes are pinnatifid it is described as Bipinnatifid. It 
is common to give the number of lobes in the descriptive phrase, as pin- 
nately niue-lobed (Fig. 40); pinnately eleven-parted (Fig. 41); palmately 
five-lobed (Fig. 4:5); palmately five-parted (Fig. 44). 

Compound Leaves have distinctly separate leaflets usually jointed 
to a common petiole, just as simple leaves are jointed to the stem. A leaf 
is Pinnate^ when the leaflets grow 
along opposite sides of the petiole 
(Fig. 42); Palmrde, if they all grow 
from the end of the petiole (Fig. 
46). Fig. 45 represents a pinnatelii 
S-/uUolate leaf; Fig. 46, ijcdmcdely 
S-foliolate. AYhen there is no odd 
leaflet at the end the leaf is ab- 
riipUy pinnate. Leaves may be 
twice, thrice, etc., compound, that 
is, the leaflets may be compound 
as in some acacias. 

30. Bracts are leaves among flow- 
ers, or small undeveloped leaves 
anywhere on the stem. 

Stipules may be adnaie to 
the base of the petiole, as in the 
rose and clover (Figures 45, 46); they may grow on the stem; or, as in 
some 2)lants of the Buckwheat Family the stipules form a sheath surround- 
ing the stem at the base of the petiole. Do not mistake the first leaves 
of a growing axillary bud for stipules. 

32. Veination of Leaves. All the leaves thus far described are said 
to be Netled-veined or Reticulated, because their skeletons of wood fiber 

45 46 

45. Pinnately 3-foliolate leaf of Bur-clover, with 
small stipules. 46- Halmatelyordigitately 3-foliolate 
leaf of a true clover, the broad adnate stipules lacerate. 



resemble nets. Examine the leaves of Iris, Calla, or any tbat are grass- 
like, and yoLi will see why they are called Parallel-veined. 

33. Netied-veinedlesiYes glow on Exogenous stems. Parallel-veined leaYes 
grow on Endogenous stems. The former belong to plants which grow from 
Dicotyledonous seeds; the latter to plants from Monocotyledonous seeds. 

Flowers. Get a bunch of Mustard flowers — Wall-flowers, single 
Stock, or Eadish flowers will do as well. Pluck a single blossom and 
note these facts: The most conspicuous part consists of four yellow 
leaves; outside of these are four smaller greenish yellow leaves in pairs 
not quite alike. The latter are Sepals, and together form the Ccdyx ; the 
former are Petals, and together form the Corolla. Pull off the sepals, 
observing that they alternate with the j^etals. Next remove the petals. 
The broad part of each petal is called the blade, the narrow jDart, the claw 
(corresponding to the petiole of an ordinary leaf). Inside of the petals 
you find six yellow-headed bodies with white stems, two of which are 
shorter than the remaining four. These are the Stamens. Their stems 
are Filaments ; the yellow heads are Anthers, and the yellow powder which 
they contain is Pollen. In the center of the flower is a club-shaped body 
called the Pistil. This is the young seed-pod, and by splitting it open 
3^ou may see the minute Ovules, which are the beginnings of seed. The 
part containing the ovules is the Ovary ; the naked ujDper end of the jdIs- 
til is the Stigma, and the jjart connecting the stigma with the ovary is the 
Style. The end of the stem 
upon which the parts of the 
flower grow is the Receptacle, 
and the stem is called a Pe- 
duncle. Fig. 47 will assist 
3^ou in learning these names. 

A Complete Flower 
must have calyx, corolla, 
stamens and pistils; but, since 
the office of a flower is to pro- 
duce seeds, and these grow 
from ovules, which pollen has 
reached by way of the stigma, 

if f/-.llr^wa +1-1 f 47 • ^l^agnified Mustard flower with four of the stamens, 

It lOilOWS inab three petals and throe sepals removed. 



, A Perfect Flower may consist of pistils and stamens only, and of 
these the styles and filaments are not essential. 

Cohesion of Floral Organs. When sepals cohere or grow fast to 
each other (Figs. 48- 
51) the calyx is Gamo- 
sepalous. So, also, 
the corolla may be 
Gamopetaloiis. When 
stamens cohere they 
are Monadeiphous if 
in one set, Diadel- 
phous if in two sets 
(usually 9 and 1), etc. 
Cohering pistils (car- 
pels) form a Com- 
pound Pistil. The de- 
grees of cohesion in 
calyx and corolla is 
described, as in leaves, 
by the terms entire, 
cleft or lobed and 
parted. Thus : Bind- 
weed (Fig. 50) has an 
entire corolla limb; Zauschneria (Fig. 51) 
has a 4-lobed calyx; Nemophila has a 
5-parted or deeply 5-lobed corolla, etc. 
If the flower has a limb (border) dis- 
tinct from the tube, these terms apply to 
the limb. 

Adhesion of Floral Organs. The 
calyx may grow fast to the ovary (Fig, 51), 
then it is said to be Superior (ovary in- 
ferior). The corolla and stamens fre- 
quently grow on the calyx, as in Fuch- 
sia, Strawberry, etc.; then they are said 

48. Bud of Eschselioltzia, with the mitriform calyx removed and 
shown above. 49- Open flowei' of the same, with two of the petals 
removed, one of these below with the stamens adhering to the claw. 
50- Flower and 1 'af of Convolvulus arvensis; above is the corolla split 
down, displaying five unequal stamens. 


to be Perigynous ; or the stamens may grow on the corolla (Fig. 50) as 
in most gamopetalous flowers, and in Eschscholtzia (Fig. 49). In the 
Orchis Family the stamens grow on the pistil. 

Irregular Flowers are those in which parts of the same kind are 
unlike in form or size. 

Inflorescence. The forms of flower-clusters are almost as various 
as the shapes of the flowers, but they 
may all be referred to two plans, viz. : 
Terminal and Axillary. The Raceme 

(Fig. 52) is a simple form of axillary \\] X \ \ \ F 
inflorescence in which the leaves are 
reduced to bracts. If the flowers are 
sessile (without j)6dicels) the raceme 
becomes a Spike (Fig. 53). If the 
older flowers are raised on long pedi- 
cels the flat-topped cluster is called a 
Corymb (Fig. 55). In an Umbel the 
pedicels all grow from the end of the 

54 53 

54. Cyme. 53. Spike. 52. 

5G). If these are 
obsolete a Hrad is 

peduncle (Fig. 
very short or 

formed. A Panicle is a loose com- 
230UDd raceme. A Thynse is a dense 
panicle. Fig. 54 represents a Cyme, 
the type of terminal inflorescence. A 
many-flowered cyme is a Fascicle ; more 
densely flowered, a Glomeride. Cymes 
and Fascicles resemble Corymbs; but 
in the former, the central flowers are 
the older, while in the latter, the younger flowers or buds occupy the 
center. Glomerules difl'er from heads in the same way. 

The woodland flowers Trillium and Anemone furnish examples of 
the simplest form of Terminal Inflorescence. Their simple stems bear 
each one flower at the top. Often, flowers seem to be axillary when the 
plan of inflorescence is terminal. Fig. 57 illustrates a case of this kind. 

56. Umbel 


Suppose that one of the branches in 
Fig. 54 had failed to grow. The first 
flower would then ajDpear to be axil- 
lary. In the plant represented b}* 
Fig. 57, two of each set of three 
axillary buds usually remain dormant. 
Their growth would complete a Tri- 
chotomous Cyme. Fig. 54 represents a 
Dichotomous Cyme. Imagine the plant 
shown in Fig. 57 to continue branch- 
ing, the stem to be shortened so as to 
bring the flowers close together, and 
the leaves to become obsolete. A 
bunch of flowers, having the apjDcar- 
ance of a one-sided raceme, would be 
formed. Let the flowers become ses- 
sile, and we would have a false spike. 
Such mimic racemes and spikes are 
usually coiled as shown in Fig. 64. 

42. The common Anagallis, whose 
pretty salmon-colored flowers appear in 
the axils of the opposite leaves (Fig. 58), 
is an illustration of simple Axillary In- 
florescence. Imagine the leaves reduced 
to bracts, and the stem shortened. The 
fruit, flowers, and buds would then form 
a Bracteate Raceme. Let the bracts be- 
come wanting, and we would have a naked 
or Bractless Raceme, similar to the one 
shown in Fig. 59. This raceme wants 
only a slight lengthening of the lower 
pedicels to become a Corymb. Indeed, it 
might be called a Corymbose Raceme. 
Fig. 60 represents a naked raceme, in 
"which only one or two flowers are in 



bloom at a time. Ji. dense Spike, 
bearing a ring- of flowers be- 
tween growing ovaries below 
and expanding buds above, is 
shown in Fig. Gl. The coiled spike (Fig. 64) is 
really a kind of cyme, as has been shown. This 
Scorpioid Inflorescence is characteristic of two 
families of plants, represented by many jDlants on 
this coast. Mosquito Bills (Fig. G2) grow in Brac- 
teate Umbels. • The Head or Capitate cluster (Fig. 63) 
is like an umbel, only the pedicels are mostly very 
short. "When the flowers are numerous, the head 
becomes Globose. The true clovers have capitate 
flowers. When the pedicels in a raceme branch so 
as to bear two or more flowers each, a Compound 
Raceme is formed. So in like manner Compound 
Umbels, Spikes, and Corymbs may be formed. These 
flower bunches, cymes, racemes, etc., may be at the ends of 
main stems or branches, or in the axils of leaves, or replace 
single flowers in any kind of inflorescence. 

43. The Calyx, as w^e have already learned, is composed 
of leaves called Sepals, which, though different from ordinary 
leaves in shape, are usually green. "When the sepals are separate, the 
flower is Fohjsepalous. Sepals united partly or wholly form a Gamo- 
sepalous calyx. If the sepals drop oft' when the flower opens, as shown 
on p. 20a, they are Caducous. If they fall with the petals, or before the 
fruit is ripe, they are Deciduous. A Persistent Calyx remains until the 



fruit ripens (Fig. 65). A colored 
calyx — i. e., not green — is said 
to be Petaloid. Flowers with- 
out petals and those of the Lily 
Family usually have j)etaloid 
sepals (Figs. QQ, 70, 71). 

44. The Corolla is Polypet- 
alous when the petals are free 
from each other (see Figs, 66, 
68, 69, 73). In Gamopetalous 
corollas there are all degrees of 
cohesion from the comj^lete 
union (Fig. 67) of the Entire 
limb to the almost free petals 
of a Divided corolla (Fig. 58). 
Petals often grow upon the calyx 
(Fig. 68). Corollas are Regular 
(Figs. 67, 69) or Irregular (Fig. 
m, and Fig. 58, p. 3. See also 
the figures on p. 11 and i>. 88b). 
Common forms of regular co- 
rollas are Rotate{Fig. 58), Salver- 
form (Fig. 64), Funnel-form 

(Fig. 67), and Campanulate or Bell-shaped when the tube expands suddenly 
at the base to a width nearly equal to that of the summit and about equal 



. . Ovary, 

Calyx tube. 

Calyx lobes. 

^ Bifid j^etals. 

73. A flower of "Wliipplea, magnified, cut down 
through the center, showing the partly iulerior 
ovary and the introrse anthers. 

to a third of tbe length. Irregular flowers are frequently 
Bilabiate or Two-lipped, as shown in the figures a and c on 
p. 11, and the figures on jd. 8Sb. AYhen the tube of a corolL^. 
is slender, and the regular or irregular limb is small or want- 
ing, the flower is said to be Tubular. The term Perianth is 
used to designate the calyx and corolla taken together. It is 
mostly used in describing endogenous flowers (Figs. 70, 71). 
45. Stamens may grow upon the receptacle (Hypogynous, 
Fig. 69), upon the calyx (Perigynous, Fig. 68), upon the 
corolla (Fig. 67), or upon the pistil. Stamens are often 
united by their filaments so as to form tubes (Fig. 74) or 
bundles; or the anthers are joined, as in the Sunflower or 
Sometimes there are two kinds of stamens in the same flower 
(Fig. Q>'$^). Staminodia are antherless or abortive stamens (see longer sta- 
mens in Fig. 6, p. 8). Anthers usually consist of two cells, w^hich are 
filled with Pollen. If the upper end of the filament lies exactly between 
the anther cells, the anther is Innate. An Adnate anther is attached by 
one side to the filament (Figs. 67, 68). A Versatile anther is attached be- 
tween its ends b}^ one side to the tip of the filament (Figs. 71, 72). The 
pollen usuall}^ escapes from slits in one side of the anther, as shown in 
Fig. 69. This side, which in an adnate or versatile anther, is ojDposite 
the filament, is called the face of the anther. When the anther faces 



tlie pistil, it is Inlrorse (Figs. 68, 71, 72, 73); and when it faces away 
from the pistil, it is Exlrorse (Fig. 69). 

The Pistil grows u^Don the receptacle, or upon a stem arising 
from it, called a Stipe (Fig. 71), In a few orders there are several or 
many pistils in each flower. Usually there is but one, formed of several 
simple pistils (carpels) united more or less closely. As in the other floral 
organs, there are all degrees of cohesion, from a slight union of the 
bases of the ovaries — rarely of the stigmas only — to such completeness 
as leaves no trace of lobes in the stigma (see Fig. on p. 5). Often the 
free styles tell how many carpels compose the jDistil (Fig. 69). Generally 
the stigmas are divided or lobed (Fig. 68). These marks wanting a cross 
section of the ovary, or, better still, of the partly grown fruit, will usu- 
ally show a cell for each carpel (see the right-hand figure, p. 88b). If 
the ovules (or young seeds) are in the center or grow on more than one 
side of the ovary (or pod), the pistil is comjoound. A simple pistil is 
generally plainly one-sided. A symmetrical pistil is comiDOund. 

Inferior Ovaries. When the calyx adheres to the ovary, so as 
to form, after the ovary has matured, the outer part of the fruit, it is 
said to he superior, because the apparent calyx, its lobes, or cup, seem 
to grow upon the ovary. For the same reason the ovary is said to be in- 
ferior (Figs. 68, 72). There are all degrees of adhesion, from the slight 
union at the base, as seen in Whipplea (Fig. 73), to the remarkable ex- 
treme exhibited in the plant figured on p. 5, in which not only the ovary, 
but several inches of the style, is adherent to the calyx. When the 
adhesion is only partial, it can be shown by cutting the flower vertically, 
as represented in Fig. 73. 

The Fruit is the ripened ovary (or set of ovaries), and all that 
directly belongs to it. A dry fruit which opens in any way to let out the 
seeds is called a Pod. A pod formed by the growth of a simple pistil 
(one-carpeled) is called a Follicle when it splits only along the side which 
bears the seeds. A Legume splits down both edges. Pods formed of 
several carpels are called Cap>sides. Akenes are dry, indehiscent, seed- 
like fruits, containing but one seed. Utricles are distinguished from 
akenes by their thin coats, which are too large for the inclosed seed. 



There are many other names applied to 
fruits, which it is not necessary to define 

58. The Growth of Ovules. You can 
not study the development of ovules from the 
beginning, without the help of a compound 
microscope, but you can easily observe all 
stages of growth, from a tiny green speck 
to the full-grown embryo. Most seeds are 
nearh^ full grown in aj^pearance before the 
embryo is more than fairly visible to the 
naked eye. The seed coat, filled w'ith a 
syrupy or milk}^ usually sweet, liquid, ap- 
pears to constitute the very young seed. 
With a sharp knife cut in halves a great 
many green peas, in size from half grown 
upward. You will surely find in some of 
them tiny green embryos, and you may get specimens from the size of a 
pin's head up to those which tightly fill the seed coat. In Fig. 75, at the 
top, is seen — magnified two diameters — the young seed of a lupine, cut so 
as to show the young embryo lying in one end. In the same figure is 
represented a radish pod, laid open so as to show three of the seeds, two 
of which exhibit their partly grown embryos.* Below, at b, is one of 
these magnified, and at a an older one, also magnified. The grown em- 
bryo coDipletely fills the seed. Observe the positions of the embryos in 
relation to the stems of the seeds and the stems of the pods. The lower 
seed in the radish is fastened to the lower side of the pod, the middle 
seed grows to the upper side. The cotyledons increase much more in 
size than the radicle. The embryo evidently grows, in part at least, by 
absorbing the liquid around it. Suppose the embryo of the lupine to quit 
growing at the size represented in the figure, and that the liquid around 
it thickens until it becomes solid. Would not the seed thus formed be 
albuminous ? 

* These are cut iu two. The embryo may be seen throtigh the seed-coat, as represented at b, by hold 
ing it up to the light. Half of the seed-coat is removed from a. 



In a general way we designate the objects around us by single 
names. We speak of a stone, a wolf, or a pine; but to distinguish the 
kinds we naturallj^ use two names, as lime stone, sand stone; grey wolf, 
prairie wolf; nut pine, yellow pine, etc. This is one step in classifica- 
tion, and the only one commonly taken. This natural plan of double 
names was adopted by the great naturalist, Linnaeus, who gave names to 
most European plants, as well as to many of this continent. He wisely 
gave the Latin form to his names, since that language (being the base of 
most languages spoken in civilized countries) is the natural source of cos- 
mopolitan names — those truly common to all people. Botanical names, 
then, differ from so-called common names principally in form, and they 
have these decided advantages: they more exactly represent the rela- 
tions between kinds of plants, and they are names that are common to 
people of all languages. In short, they are the true common names. 

It is not true that botanical names are harder than local names. The most com- 
mon of our ornamental plants are well known by their scientific names. Xo one thinks 
of calling the following botanical names hard : Geranium; Aster; Verbena; Petunia; Por, 
tulaca; Crocus; Phlox; Fuchsia; Iris; Magnolia; Oxalis; Azalea; Dahlia; Lobelia; Ar- 
nica, etc. jSIost people talk familiarly of Camellias, Callas, Begonias, Acacias; etc. : 
while our beautiful California plants, Clarkia, Collinsia, Eschscholtzia Nemophila, etc., 
are well known by their proper names — at least, in other countries. 

Generic Names correspond to the second parts of the compound com- 
mon names, as oak, pine, rose, etc. Some of these are the old Greek or 
Latin names of the plant. Most generic names are either derived from 
Greek or Latin words descriptive of some peculiarity of the plant, or they 
are commemorative of some botanist, as Thysanocarpus, from Greek 
words meaning fringe and pod; Kelloggia, in honor of Dr. A. Kellogg, a 
veteran botanist of this coast. Sometimes genera are named in honor of 
those who are not botanists, as Fremontia, Hollisteria, etc. 


Specific Names ^re adjectives corresponding to the first parts of com- 
mon names. Thej are usually descriiDtive of some characteristic of the 
plant, as Gilia liniflora, Flax-flowered Gilia. Frequently a species is 
named for the discoverer, as Gilia Bolanderi, Bolander's Gilia; often for the 
country where it was first found, or where it abounds, as Ranunculus Cali- 
fornicus, California Buttercup. Sometimes there are varieties of a sj^ecies 
as Trifolium barbigerum, Var. Andrewsii, Andrews' Bearded-Clover. 

Orders and Classes. Genera are grouped in Orders or Families, 
and these in Classes. There are two classes of flowering plants, Exogens 
and Endogens. 


This whole matter of naming and classifying can be well under- 
stood only after you have analyzed many plants; i. e., you must have 
carefully examined them j^artby part, and patiently compared their i)ecul- 
iarities with the descrijDtions in the Flora until you have determined 
their names. In the beginning there wdll be many failures; but do not 
allow them to discourage you, for each victory will make the way easier 
to other conquests. 

Choose for jour first studies plants with large flowers. Do not 
attempt to determine the name of a plant unless you have specimens 
which show the kind of inflorescence and the arrangement of the leaves 
on the stem. If possible, secure specimens of the fruit aud the roots. 
If in any plant you cannot readily distinguish the parts of the flower and 
their relations to each other, lay it aside until the study of easier plants 
has given you more skill. 

The first thing to be determined in analyzing a plant is the Clcss; 
i. e.y you must decide whether it is an Exogen or an Endogen. You have 
learned in the preceding lessons how the seeds and stems of these two 
Classes of Flowering Plants differ. Usually, however, the leaves and 
flowers sufficiently distinguish the class. In our plants, if the leaves are 
parallel-veined; or, if the parts of the flower are in threes the plant is an 
endogen. In other words, if there is no network of intersecting fibers 
between the ribs of the leaves the plant is an endogen; if the flower has 



three sepals and three j)etals (i. e., a perianth of six leaves or lobes), three 
or six stamens and three or six pistils (generally united to form a compound 
pistil with a three or six-celled ovary) the plant is an endogen. When 
the leaves are netted-veined, and the parts of the flower are not all in 
threes, the plant is an exogen. 

It is a good plan to write out a description of a plant before 
attempting to ascertain its name. The parts may be described in this 
order: Boots, Stems, Leaves, Flowers, Fruit. 

You may find a smooth plant bearing a loose raceme of red flowers, 
one of which is represented in Fig. 57. The 
floral leaves are all colored, but there are 
evidently two sets; viz. : a calyx of 5 sepals 
inclosing a corolla of 4 petals. The parts of 
the flower, then, are not in threes; and, since 
the palmately lobed leaves are netted-veined 
the plant must be an exogen. Turning to \\^ 

the key, we proceed as follows: 

The plant must belong in "Division 1," since by carefully removing the sepals 
and petals we find that the latter are separate from each other. It must be found under 
"A," for there are many stamens. The stamens are free from the calyx and corolla, i. e., 
they are hypogynous; so we read the next line: " Pistils, few to many distinct carpels, 
rarely one." Our flower has three distinct carpels, therefore we feel sure that it must 
be sought under one of the next five equal lines beginning with "Calyx." As the 
calyx is easily shaken off from the older flowers we decide that it is deciduous. The 
juice is colorless also. We turn, therefore, to Raxunculace^, p. 16. The description 
of the order is satisfactory. The key to the genera begins with the heading " * Floweis 
regular." Ours is not, for the upper sepal is unlike the others. '^ ** Flowers irregular ; 
colored sepals conspicuous," is right. We now choose between "Upper sepal spurred,' 

and ' ' Upper sepal hooded. " Evidently the first 
is right, and the genus is Ddphiuium. We find 
that the generic description on p. 18 fits our 
plant. The last species being the only one with 
red flowers, we decide that our plant is Del- 
phinium nudicaule, or the Naked-stemmed Lark- 

The order Leguminosse, or the 
Pea Family, is one that you will soon 


learn, since its cbaracteristics are well marked. We will suppose that 
you liave before 3'ou a very common blue-flowered shrubby plant belong- 
ing to that order, a single flower of which is shown in Fig. 58. Knowing 
the order, you turn at once to p. 38, and begin to use the key to the 

Carefully removing all the petals, the stamens and pistil appear as in a, Fig. 59. 
Tlie filaments are united for tlie greater part of their length into a tube which incloses 
the ovary as a sheath does a knife. Of the three sections in the key, then, it is evident 
that the second is to be taken. Since some of the anthers have shed their pollen, and 
others have not, it is safe to say they are of two kinds — a bud will show the difference 
better (b, Fig. 59.) Moreover the leaves are digitate, and have more than three leaflets. 
We therefore conclude that the third genus is the one. Our plant is slightly shrubby, 
so we pass over the first heading in the synopsis of Si^ecies. Of the second and third 
headings the last seems the most likely to lead us aright. Our flower is blue, so we have 
to choose between the second and third species. The words " Slightly woody at the 
base," decide us in favor of Lupiniis Douglasii, though we should examine more speci- 
mens before being quite positive. 

Fig. GO represents a flower of a plant 
common in the Redwood forests. Three or 
more of the dull-colored flowers grow in an 
umbel on a very short scape between a pair of 
spreading radical leaves. Since the leaves have 
parallel veins, and the parts of the flower are 
in threes, we must use the Analytical Key 
for Endogens, p. 13. You will have no diffi- 
culty in referring the plant to the Order Lilia- 
CE^. To make the analysis of a plant in that 60. nowemf s oiiopus a.ono 

•^ ■•- of tlie stamens magnified, showing 

large order easy, the genera are grouped in the bursting anther ceUs. 
three Series. Beading the characteristics of Series I, we find they do 
not correspond with those of our plant, which has no floral bracts, which 
has the stamens hypogynous instead of perigynous, the anthers extrorse 
instead of introrse, etc. Comparing Series II with Series III, we decide 
that our plant belongs in the former, since the perianth is not persistent, 
and the flowers are not in racemes or panicles. § 1, in Series II is wrong, 
for our plant has no leafy stem. Since the perianth segments of our 
flower are dissimilar we try § 3, under which we refer our plant to the 


genus Scoliopus. Turning to the description of the only species de- 
scribed, we find it satisfactory. Upon referring to the Glossary of 
Generic and Specific Names in the hack part of the book, we find why 
the plant ^tas named Scoliopus Bigelovii. 

This picture represents part of a plant whose yellow 
flowers are among the first to greet the new year. 
It is shown as it would appear if cut down through 
the center after removing most of the outer leaves. 
The leaves and flowers all grow from the flat summit 
of a thick root-stock. It will be noticed that the 
buds are younger as the center is approached. Possi- 
bly you have tried to analyze one of these flowers. 
If so, you probably got on nicely till you tried to 
find the ovary. I hope you kept searching and at 
last felt the satisfaction which rewards the discoverer. 
However, you can determine the name, and thus 
have the book tell you where the ovary is. The 
poorest eyes can see that the leaves are all radical; 
that the four divisions of the calyx are reflexed; that 
four broad petals and eight stamens grow upon it; 
and that there is one pistil whose slender style bears 
a globose stigma. You can not doubt that the plant 
is to be sought under B., in Division 1, but you are 
unable to say whether the ovary is superior or not. 
In such a case, search first for the order under the 
head "Ovary SrrERioR;" and, if not satisfied 
there, try the head "Ovary and Fruit Inferior." 
Smce there is but one pistil, you look under " * * Pis- 
fil only one. " The plant is not a shrub, so you next 
stop at "t t Herh.^.'' The first division under this is 
the only one admissible, because the leaves are all 
radical. But in no case under this head is the num- 
ber of stamens eight. We therefore try the sub- 
head "2. Ovary and Fruit Inferior," etc. It is 
evident that the descriptive line, "Parts of the flower 
mostly in 4's," etc., is the only one that fits our 
plant, so we turn to p. 59, where we find nothing in 
the description of the order Onagraceae to rule our 
plant out. The lines descriptive of the genera are 
all una Lined to our plant, except one, which refers us to the genus GEnothera, the de- 


Fig. A. Clartia elegans; a, in- 
ferior, sessile ovary of the axil- 
laryflower. Fig. B. Boisduvalia 
densiflora; c, inferior ovary, ses- 
sile in the axil of a br ct. Fig. 
C. Capsule of Godetia; l>, cross 
secti >n of the same. Fig. D. 
Epilobium paniculatum; h, in- 
ferior ovary; /, a crown capsule; 
g, tube of calyx above the ovary; 
e, one of the bifid petals; i, one 
of the seeds bearing a tuft of 
Bilteu hairs. 

The figure on the right rep- 
resents Cavdamine paucisecta, 
a pod of -which is represented at 
€ en the opposite page. 

scription of which (p. 60) is satisfactory. Our plant is acaulescent or stemless; therefore, 
according to the book, the calyx tube is filiform (slender) above the underground ovary. 
This being verified by examination, there can be little doubt that the plant is Oenothera 
ovttta. You now see that the flowers, instead of growing upon scapes, are sessile upon 
the end of a root-stock. The apparent flower stem is the slender calyx tube and style 
consolidated. When you plucked the flower, the ovary was left under the ground. No 
wonder you could not find it. Later in the season you will find other plants belonging 
to this order; then the figures above will help you. 

The figure at the right above represents the upper part of a plant which usually grows 
in moist places. The white flowers have four separate sepals; four petals; six stamens in 
two sets, two being shorter and otherwise diS'erent from the other four, and one pistil. 


These characters lead you in the key to the Oider Cruciferse, but it is not easy to decide 
farther, because you have not the fruit. Look for the pods a few weeks later, and you 

will find them long and flat, as represented in the 
figure at e on the left. You can then determine 
the name of the plant. The seed pods here 
figured will help you in determining some of the 
plants in this order. 

The curious flower depicted below is another 
early bloomer. You must cat the flower open 
and study it carefully. The four — sometimes 
five — petals are joined together, and bear upon 
the short tube the four stamens which hug the 
pistil tightly and form a beak like that of a bird. 
The ovary does not adhere to the calyx, and if a 
seed pod is partly grown, it will be easy to see 
that the seeds grow upon a central placenta. 
Turning to the key you are called upon to de- 
cide whether the stamens are opposite the lobes 
of the corolla or not. They certainly are op- 
posite, so the order Primulacese is evidently 
m ■' » f '/'^ where our plant belongs. The pretty little for- 

f ^^ ^^^^ _^^ eigner Anagallis is here figured, and it will bo 

Upper Fig. — a, indehiscent 
pod of Eaphanus Kaplianis- 
trum; h, pod (silicle) of Cap- 
Bella Bursa-pastoris; c, pod of 
Capsella divaricata; d, pod 
(silique) of Tropidocarpum, 
flattened contrary to the parti- 
tion; e, pod of Cardamine pau- 

ci.-ecta, flattened parallel with the partition (septum);/, two pods (silicle) 
of Lepidium nitidum, and two partitions from which the valves have fallen, 
showing that there was one seed in each cell; p, pod of Lepidium latipes, 
showing the broad pedicel which suggested the specific name; h, a branch 
of Thysanocarpus pusillus, with four of its 1-seeded pods; i, one of 
the pods magnified to show the hooked hairs; j, pod of Thysanocarpus 

LowEK Fig.— c, reflexed petals of Dodecatheon Meadia; /, filaments; a, . 
anthers; s, stigma (not always protruding); i, involucre; p, scape (radical 
peduncle). The horizontal figure represents a rather small branch of Ana- 
gallis arvensls. 



well to read the description of 
Trientalis, that you may know it 
when found. 

When you get a head of the 
purple-blue flovrcr; of Brodicea 
capitata, figured on the cover of 
this book, it will be the proper 
time to study the figures on tliis 
page, and what is here said about 
the genus they illustrate. 

Upon p. 113 you will find the 
species grouped under three sub-genera or sections. 
Figures a, d, and e illustrate the first, c the sec- 
ond, and b the third. The species belonging to 
the first section are arranged under two heads 
marked by asterisks, and those under the first head 
are under subheads marked by daggers. Species 4 
and 5 closely re3emble number 6, which is put un- 
der a different head, because it has six true or 
anther-bearing stamens instead of three stamens 
and three staminodia. Fig. a shows that three of 
the filaments came near being antherless. Petaloid 
staminodia replace these small stamens in species 
4 and 5, and the fertile stamens are without the 

a. Observe 

pistil of B. laxa. d. Bud and flower of B. that the staminodia in one of these species are 
terrestris. e. Same with perianth laid cleft. The first three species have flowers resem- 
'^ ^ * bling the one shown in Figs, d and e, in which 

the staminodia (opposite the outer segments of the perianth) are not petaloid, but 
resemble true stamens. Observe that the first species is distinguished by staminodia not 
notched at the top as shoAvn in the figure. The species in § Seuhertia resemble the first 
three in general appearance, but the stamens and pistils are very different, as is shown 
^y Fig- c- Observe that the stamens have versatile instead of basifixed anthers ; and the 
ovary is upon a stipe, instead of being sessile. Douglas' Brodioea, of Oregon, is like 
Fig. c, only the base of the perianth is broader, the upper row of stamens have broad 
bases, the stipe is shorter and the flowers are on short pedicels, so as to form a sub- 
capitate umbel. The most common species of the third section is the White Brodicea. 
Fig. h shov.s a part of the flower. 

The middle figure on the next page represents a plant, the curious cup-like leaves of 
which must have attracted your attention. The leaf cups are frequently much larger than 
here shown, and borne upon stems a foot or more in height. Though the flowers are small, 


a. Perianth of Brodifea capitata laid 
op'en, with pi -til and section of mature 
capsule, b. Two segments of the perianth 
of B. lactea and the pistil, c. Perianth and winglike appendages shown in Fi 


you readily decide that the sepals are two, and 
that there are five petals and five stamens. The 
seed pods show that there is but one pistil, and 
that the calyx does not adhere to the ovary; that 
is, the ovary is superior. Armed with this in- 
formation, you turn to the key where you search 
under "B. Stamens 10 or less." Evidently the 
correct subheads are: "1. Ovary, or ovaries, supe- 
rior," etc.; "* * Pistil only one/' "ff Herb/' 
"X Leaves mostly radical/' "Stamens 5, opposite the 
petals; sepals 2; style 3-cleft — Portulacacese, 29." 
Turning to p. 29 you find that Claytonia is the 
only genus having 5 stamens, and that this plant 
must be Claytonia jy^r/oliata. 

The little plant figured above (a) evidently an- 
swers to the description of the Vax. exlrjua, which 
is now considered by the best authority to be a 
distinct species. The stem leaves are sometimes 
broad and united at the base. The radical leaves 
are nearly terete, as shown in the figure. This 
species is most obviously distinguished from the 
two varieties of the Cup-leaved Claytonia, by its 
glaucous leaves. The plants are often smaller 
than here represented, and rarely much larger. 

Kellogg's Lavatera, or Tree jSIallows, an ever- 
blooming shrub, conunon in cultivation, is a con- 
stant source of material with which to illustrate 
the Mallows Family. The figure at the bottom of 
the i)age represents one of the flowers cut through 
the center, so as to show the structure. The fruit 
of a very common weed of the same family is also 
shoA^oi. The most common native plant is Sidalcea 
humilis, described on page 32. Hollyhock, cotton, 
okra and Abutilon are foreign plants of this order, 
common in cultivation. The latter is a shrub with 
drooping flowers; the petals incurved, and the 
stamens sticking out (exserted). 

Upper Fig.— a. Claytonia exigua (entire plant) . h. Clay- 
tonia perfoliata. 

Lower Tig.— a. Fruit of Malva rotundifolia. h. Same, 
showing the bracts of the persistent calyx, c. Kellogg'a 
Lavatera. (L. assurgentiflora.) 



You may recognize in the picture on this page the 
likeness of one of our most troublesome native 
weeds. The yellow flowers are often smaller than 
here represented, and the upper leaves are generally 
narrower. Indeed, this plant, along with many 
others of this coast, is provokingly variable in its 
appearance. Pull off a corolla, and a single un- 
divided style is uncovered. Follow this down into 
the calyx, and you discover that it grows from be- 
tween four seed-like ovaries. These are more easily 
seen in an older calyx, as shown at a. Now it hap- 
pens that this peculiar compound ovary, together 
with the coiled inflorescence, belongs only to plants 
of the order BorraginaceiB. A coiled inflorescence 
and a pistil with a divided style is found only in 
plants of the order Hydrophyllaceie. Any plant 
with a four-parted ovary and regular flo\\'ers may 
be sought under the former order. Creeping Helio- 
trope or Blue Weed {/leliotropium Cura-oiavlcum) is 
a Borraginaceous plant with ovaries merely 4-lobed. 
The Mint Family has fruit similar to that of the 
Borrages (see d and e in the figure on p. 11), but the 
flowers are irregular, Tlie Verbenas are distin- 
guished from the Mints by nearly regular flowers 
and a 4-lobed ovary, Avliich does not split into parts 
until quite ripe. (See a in the left-hand figure on page 11.) 

The plant figured at the top of the opposite page is common in open woods tliroughout 
tlie Coast Eanges and the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada. Tlie flowers are white, tinged 
with purple. Each of the three incurved petals is covered with hairs on the inner side, 
and is marked near the base by a depression which is seen upon the outside as a project- 
ing boss. This is called a gland, and is one of the characteristic marks of the genus. 
Since the three-cornered ovary is superior, we at once refer the plant to the order 
Liliaceae, where we again read the characters given in each of the three series. The 
stamens in this plant are hypogynoiis, not perigynous, and the anthers are extrorse. 
Therefore, Series I is passed. Series III is excluded, because the anthers in this plant 
are not versatile. Evidently the name is to be sought under Series II, which is divided 
into three sections. You now see why you should have dug up one of the plants. How- 
ever, you can decide the genus without knowing that the plant is bulbous. It can not 
belong to § 3, since one of the two genera under it has umbellate flowers, and the other 
solitary flowers. In § 2, the perianth segments are similar. Our plant then must be sought 
jn § 1, and under the head "* * Perianth segments unlike," which leads to Calochortus, 

Amsinckialycopsoides. a. Calyx spread 
apart to thow the ripe akenes. 



Upper Fig. — Floorer and 
buds of ral"chr>rtus albns, 
and the tliree--wiiiged fruit 
outlined . 

Eight-handFiCx.— a. Flower 
of Sphacelec:i]ycina. 6. Same 
with corolla cut to show sta- 
mens, pistil, and hairy ring 
inside, e. Fruit (4 globular 
akenes" of the same, ly ng in 
the bottom of iYe calyx, c. 
Flower and buds, showing in- 
florescence of Trichostema 
lanceolatum. d. Ripe fruit of 
the same (i triangular akenes 
in the persistent calyx). 

Left-hand Fig. — Verbena 
hastata (ppikes and bracts). 
a. Ripe fruit rrmoved from 
the calyx (natural size and 
magnified) . 

p. 117. The subglobose 
and nodding flowers place 
it in the first division of 

§ 1, Eiicahjchortus. Our plant is the white species. The 
yellow species has larger flowers. The stiflly erect, open 
flowers of § 2 of this genus have a markedly difi"erent ap- 
pearance from the species here figured; yet their struc- 
ture is similar. The spots upon thejoetals cause them to 
resemble the wings of butterflies; hence the common name Butterfly Tulip, and the sec- 
tion name Mariposa, 



*^* The names (or abbreviations) following botanical names indicate the botanists who 
Qamed the plants. 

A. DC, A. De Candolle. 

Am., Arnott. 

Asch., Ascherson. 

Benth., Bentham. 

Borkh . , Bo rkhausen. 

Brew., Brewer. 

Cav., Cavanilles. 

Cham., Chamisso, 

DC, De Candolle. 

Desf., Desfontaints, 

Dougl., Douglas. 

Endl., Endlicher. 

Engl., Engelmann. 

Esch., Esclischoltz. 

Fisch., Fischer. 

Gr., Gray. 

Grise., Grisehach. 

HBK., Humboldt, Bonpland & Kuntlu 

Hook., IF. J. Hooker. 

Horn., Hornemann. 

L., Linnceus. 

Lag., Lagasea. 

Ledeb., Ledehour. 
Lehm. , Lehmann. 
L'Her., UHeritler. 
Lindl., L'mdley. 
Magn., Magnus. 
Mey., Meyer. 
Menz., Menzies. 
Michx., Michaux. 
Moc, Mocino. 
Muhl., 2lHhlenherg. 
Nutt., Nuttall. 
R. Br. , Robert Brown. 
Reichenb., Bekhenbach. 
Roem., B<£.mer. 
Sch., Schlechtendal. 
Schw., Schweinitz, 
Scop., Scopoli. 
Steud., Steudel. 
Torr., Torrey. 
Tourn., Tournefort. 
Walp., Walpers. 
WiUd., Willdenow. 


The calyx and corolla together of either more or less than six parts* CLASS I 

The calyx and corolla together of 6 parts: 

Stamens 6 or less CLASS II 

Stamens 9 Eriogonum, 105 


Calyx and corolla both present. 

Petals not united (free) Division 1 

Petals more or less united (cohering) Division 2 

Corolla wanting; calyx often petaloid, sometimes wanting Division 3 


A. Stamens more than 10 and more than double the number of 

1. HYPOGYNOUS, i. e., on the receptacle (not adhering to the sepals or petals). 
* Pistils few to many distinct carpels, rarely one. 

Calyx deciduous, sepals 5 Ranunculatceae, 16 

Calyx caducous, sepals 2 or 3 Papaveraceae, 20 

Calyx persistent, sepals 3 or 4; aquatic plants NymphaBacese, 20 

Calyx persistent; leaves all radical RosaceaB, 49 

Calyx petaloid; corolla wanting Ranunculaceae, 16 

* * Pistil one and compound, as shown by two or more stigmas, or more than one cell in the 

Petals more numerous than the sepals. 

Indefinitely numerous, slender, persistent; aquatic plants Nymphaeaceae, 20 

Just twice as many (4-6); sepals caducous Papaveraceae, 20 

Five to sixteen; sepals persistent; fleshy herbs Portulacaceae, 29 

* Maianthemum (seep. 115) has a 4-partecl perianth; 4 stamens and 2 or 3 parallel- veined leaves. 


Petals of the same number (5) as the persistent sepals, yellow. 

Leaves opposite; sepals equal Hypericaceae, 30 

Leaves alternate; 2 outer sepals smaller Cistaceae, 25 

2. PERIGYNOUS or EPIGYNOUS (on the free or adnate calyx). 

Leaves opposite, simple; fleshy herbs Ficoideae, 63 

Shrubs. Sepals and petals numerous Calycanthaceae, 55 

Sepals and petals 4 or 5 Sax'fragaceae, 55 

Leaves alternate, with stipules Rosaceae, 49 

Without stipules; rough herbs Loasaceae, 62 


Stamens free; calyx a cap; petals 4 Papaveraceae, 20 

Stamens many united to form a tube; petals 5 Malvaceae, 31 

Stamens 10 to 16 united for half the length; petals 5-8 Styracaceae, 20 

B. Stamens 10 or less. 

1. OVARY or OVARIES SUPERIOR (free from the calyx), or mainly so, but 
sometimes included in the calyx-tube. 

* Pistils more than one and distinct [not united). 
Pistils of the same number, as petals and the sepals. 

Leaves simple entire, fleshy , Crassulaceae, 58 

Leaves pinnate; styles united Geraniaceae, 33 

Pistils not corresponding in number with the petals and sepals. 

Two, united at the base. Trees with compound leaves Sapindaceae, 37 

Herbs with simple leaves Saxifragaceae, 55 

Many. Stamens on the receptacle Ranunculaceae, 16 

Stamens on the calyx Rosaceae, 49 

* * Pistil only one. 

+ Shrubs or trees. 
Style and stigma one. 

Sepals, petals, and stamens each, iu 3's opposite each other. . Berberidaceae, 19 

4 to 5 each; leaves 3-foliolate, alternate . . Rutaceae, 34 

5 each; leaves simple, opposite Celastraceae, 35 

Calyx 2-lipped; petals unequal; stamens 5-8, exserted Sapindaceae, 37 

Calyx 4-toothed; petals 2; stamens 2-4; fruit a samara Oleaceae, 73 

Styles or stigmas more than one. 

Styles 2; leaves opposite; fruit 2-winged Sapindaceae, 37 

Style 3-clef t; stamens 5, opposite the small petals Rhamnaceae, 35 

Stigmas 3; leaves alternate 3-foliolate Anacardiaceae, 38 

Stigma 5-lobed; a small shrub with opposite or whorled leaves Ericaceae, 68 


>^ t + Herhs. 

% Leaves mostly radical. 

Stamens 5, anthers united; lower petal spurred; style 1 Violaceae, 25 

Stamens 5, opposite the petals. Sepals 2; style 3-cleft Portiilacaceae, 29 

Sepals united; styles 5 Plumbaginaceae, 71 

Stamens 10, on the receptacle; stigma 5-lobed Ericaceae, 6S 

Stamens 10, on the calyx; styles 2 Saxifragaceae, 55 

Stamens 6, in 3's; sepals 2; petals 4, in pairs Fumariaceas. 22 

X X Leaves alternate. 

Corolla regular. 

Stigma one, often 2-lobed; stamens 6 (2 and 4) Cruciferae, 22 

Stigma 1, calyx a striated tube bearing 6 petals Lythraceae, 59 

Stigmas o; sepals and petals 5 each; stamens 5-10 Geraniaceae, 33 

Styles 3-5; sepals and petals 5 each; stamens 5 Linaceae, 32 

Style 3-cleft; sepals 2; petals 5; fleshy herbs Portulacaceae, 29 

Corolla irregular; style one. 

Stamens 10; fruit a legume Leguminosae, 38 

Stamens 5; anthers united; lower petal spurred Violaceae, 25 

Stamens G. in 2 sets; stigma 2-lobed Fumariaceae, 22 

Stamens 6-8, united; ovary 2-celled Polygalaceae, 27 

XXX Leaves opposite or ivhorled. 

Styles 2-5; fruit a 1 -celled capsule; stamens 10 or 5 Caryophyllaceae, 27 

Styles 3; flowers sessile; stamens 4 to 7 Frankeniaceae, 20 

Styles or stigmas 5; fruit 5 akenes , Geraniaceae, 33 

Small white flowers clustered on terminal peduncles Saxifragaceae, 55 

Leaves in 3's; white flowei's; petals G in 2 sets Papaveraceae, 20 

Leaves a single pair on the stems; fleshy Portulacaceae, 29 

2. OVARY AND FRUIT INFERIOR (adherent to the calyx), or mainly so. 

Shrubs; sepals, petals, and stamens each 4-5; leaves simple. 

Stamens opposite the clawed petals; style 3cleft Rhamnaceae, 35 

Sepals x:)etaloid; ovary globose; styles 2, or 2-cleft Saxifragaceae, 55 

Leaves opposite; flowers in heads with jjetaloid involucre or in \ Cornace^ V'\ 

cymes; the sepals, petals, and stamens 4 each j ' 

Herbs. Sepals and petals each 5; styles distinct; leaves simple .... Saxifragaceae, 55 

Parts of the flower mostly in 4's (rarely in 2's or 6's) Onagraceae, 59 

Tendril-bearing vines, with prickly fruit Cucurbitaceae, 63 

Flowers iii umbels; styles 2 Umbelliferae, 63 



A. Ovary Inferior (adherent to the calyx) or largely so. 

Stamens more numerous than the lobes of the corolla, 8 or 10. 

Distinct and free from it, or nearly so Ericaceae, 68 

Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla (5, rarely 4), united into a tube. 

Flowers in an involucrate head, resembling a single blossom Compositae, 66 

Flowers separate in racemes or spikes; ovary slender Lobeliaceae, 67 

Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes, distinct. 

Nearly or quite free; leaves alternate, no stipules Campanulaceae, 67 

Inserted on the corolla; leaves opposite or whorled. 

With stipules, or in whorls, entire Rubiaceae, 65 

Without stipules, opposite. Calyx with minute lobes. . . Caprifoliaceae, 64 

Prostrate herbs. Abronia in Nyctaginaceas, 104 

Stamens only 3, fewer than the lobes of the corolla. 

Leaves opposite; stamens distinct; flowers minute Valerianae eae, G6 

Leaves alternate; stamens united; fruit prickly Cucurbitaceae, 63 

B. Ovary Superior (free from the calyx) or nearly so. 
1. FLOWERS REGULAR or nearly so. 

* Stamens, twice as many as the lobes of the corolla. 

Stamens 10 (rarely 8), free; corolla campanulate Ericaceae, 68 

Filaments united for half their length; corolla nearly polypetalous Styrax, 20 

Pistils or styles as many as the petals; flesliy herbs Crassulaceas, 58 

* * Stamens as many as the lobes of tJie corolla and opposite them. 

Styles 5; long-clawed petals, scarcely united Flumbaginaceae, 71 

Style 1; corolla lobes, reflexed or rotate Primulaceae, 72 

* * * Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with them. 

Style and stigma one, leaves entire (lobed in the first). 

Leaves mostly radical; flowers on a scape Romanzoffia in Hydrophyllaceae, 80 

Leaves all radical; flowers in a spike; 4-lobed corolla scarious Piaiitaginaceae, 103 

Leaves alternate; flowers mostly in coiled spikes; ovary 4-lobed Borraginaceas, 83 

Leaves alternate; flowers rotate to funnelform; ovary 2-celled Solanaceae, SS 

Leaves opposite; flowers in cymes; ovaries 2 Apocynaceae, 73 

Leaves opposite or whorled; flowers in umbels; ovaries 2 Asclepiadaceae, 73 

Style 1 or none, stigmas 2. 

Leaves opposite or whorled, sessile, entire, or ) g.^!, tjanacese 74 

Leaves alternate, 3-foliolate, on a creeping rootstock j 


Leaves alternate; twining vines; flowers funnelform, axillary Convolvulaceee, 86 

Leaves alternate; flowers not axillary Hydropliyllaceae, 80 

Leaves alternate; flowers in a head, with acerose bracts G'dia, § 5, 78 

Style 2-cleft Hydropliyllaceae, 80 

Style 3-cleft, or stigmas 3 Polemoniaceae, 75 

Style 2; leaves simple or none. 

Flowers solitary in the axils of small leaves j couvolvulace^, 86 

Flowers clustered on filform parasitic stems ) 

Flowers in naked cymose clusters; shrubs Hydrophyllaceae, 80 

* * * * Stamens feioer than the lobes of the slightly irregular corolla. 

Limosella or Veronica in Scrophulariaceae, 93 

2. FLOWERS IRREGULAR. Stamens with anthers 4 in pairs or 2; style 1; 
leaves opposite or none. 

Ovary 1-celled; corolla curved; leafless root parasites Orobanchace^, 96 

Ovary 2-celled Scrophulariaceae, 89 

Ovary 4 parted, forming in fruit 4 seedlike nutlets Labiatae, 97 

Ovary 4-lobed; fruit splitting into 4 nutlets Verbenaceae, 102 


A, Ovary inferior (calyx adherent) or apparently so. 

Leaves cordate; calyx 3-lobed; capsule 6-celled .Aristolochiaceae, 104 

Leaves opposite; calyx salver-form; ovary 1-seeded Nyctaginaceae, 104 

Leaves opposite; ca;lyx inconspicuous; corolla tubular Caprifoliaceae, 64 

B, Ovary superior (free from the calyx). 

* Herbs; leaves alternate. 

Petaloid calyx withering-peristent; akene 3-cornered or flat Polygonaceae, 105 

Petah)id sepals deciduous; carpels several Ranuuculace^, 16 

Sepals 4, green, deciduous; small pods 2-celled Cruciferae, 22 

Flowers asepalous in a spike, with a petaloid involucre Anemopsis, 106 

* * Herbs; haves opposite, entire. 

Capsule 1-celled; style and stigma 1; leaves fleshy. 

Stems prostrate; flowers in involucrate heads Nyctaginaceae, 104 

Stems erect; flowers axillary Glaiix in Primulaceae, 73 

Capsule 1-celled; style or stigmas, 3 or more Caryophyllaceae, 27 

Capsule 3-o-celled; flowers axiDary Mollugo in Ficoideae, 63 



* * * Shriibs or frees; leaves alternate, entire {except in the last). 

Calyx tubular, bearing the stamens; akene tailed Rosaceae, 49 

Calyx 6-parted, yellowish; leaves aromatic Lauraceas, 106 

Calyx 4-5-cleft, greenish; fruit cherry-like Rhamnaceae, 35 

Calyx 3-4-cleft, yellowish; stamens 6-8 ThymeiacesB, 107 

Calyx o-cleft, bright yellow; stamens 5, united Sterculiaceae, 20 

* * * * Trees ; leaves opposite, pinnate. 

Fruit a slender samara Oleaceae, 73 

Fniit a double samara Sapindaceae, 37 


A, Perianth adherent to the ovary (ovary inferior) . 

Flowers irregular. Anthers 1 or 2 on the pistil. . . ; Orchidaceae, 108 

Flowers regular. Stamens 3, anthers extrorse Iridaceae, 110 

S. Perianth free (ovary superior). 

Flowers in whorls. Carpels 8 to many , Alismaceae, 108 

Pistil 3-celled; stamens 3 to 6 Liliaceae, 1 10 

Flowers greenish in a spikn , Triglochin in Alismaceae, 108 

Perianth 4-parted; stamens 4. Stem 2-3-ieaved Maiantliemwm, 115 




Series I. 

Plants producing flowers and seeds ; the former consisting, at least, of stamens and 
pistils, which may be togetlier in the same flower, or they may separately form staminate 
and pistillate flowers growing on the same individual, or different individuals of one 
species ; the latter containing a germ, or embryo. 

Class I. — Exogenous Dicotyledons. 

Stems consisting of pith in the center, bark on the outside, and between these, fibrous 
or woody tissue, which, in perennial stems, increases from year to year by the addition of 
layers on the outside next the bark. Embryo usually of two opposite cotyledons, or rarely 
with several in a whorl. 

Sub-class I. — Angiosperms. 
Pistil consisting of a closed ovary which forms the fruit. Cotyledons two. 




Herbs or shmbs, with colorless juice; foliage various; stipules none; organs of the 
flower free and distinct; sepals, petals, and pistils few or many; stamens numerous; petals 
sometimes wanting, then the sejDals are usually petaloid; anthers short and adnate; seeds 
with minute embryos in flesh}' albumen. 

* Floivers regular. 

Petals none; shrubby climbers Clematis. 1 

Petals none; small herbs Anemone. 2 

Petals 5 or more; carpels numerous Ranunculus. 3 

Petals 5, spvu-red; carpels 5 Aquilegia. 4 

* * Flowers irrerjular; colored sepals consincuous. 

Upper sepal spurred Delphinium. 5 

Upper sepal hooded. Aconitum. 6 

* * * Sepals large, leaf-like, persistent. 
Flowers large Paeonia. 7 

1. CLEMATIS, L. Virgin's Bower, 

Sepals 4, colored and petal-like, valvate in the bud. Pistils numerous; styles persistent, 
becoming long feathery tails in fruit. Half -woody climbers or perennial herbs, with 
opposite leaves. 

1. C. ligusticifolia, Nutt. Stems climbing by the petioles of the 5-foliolate leaves; 
leaflets broadly ovate to lanceolate, 1^ to 3 inches long, acute or acuminate, 3-lobed and 
coarsely toothed, rarely entire or 3-parted. Flowers dioecious, paniculate; sepals thin, 
silky, white, 4 to G lines long; akenes pubescent; tails 1 to 2 inches long. 

Var. Californica, Watson. Leaves silky-tomentose beneath, often smalL 

2. C. lasiantha, Nutt, Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets ovate, 1 to H inches long, acute, 
coarsely toothed or 3-lobed or the terminal 3-parted. Flowers solitary on 1-2-bractcd 
peduncles; sepals obtuse, thick, C to 10 lines long. 


Sepals 4 to 20, colored and petal-like, imbricated in the bud. Petals none. Pistils 
numerous; style short; stigma lateral; akenes compressed, pointed, in a head. Erect 
perennial herbs, with lobed or divided leaves, which are radical, except those which form 
an involucre below the flower. 


1. A. nemorosa, L. (Wood Axemone.) Smooth or somewhat villous; stems 
from a slender rootstock, 3 to 12 inches high, without radical leaves, one-flowered; invo- 
lucre of 3 petioled ternato leaves, the- divisions cuneate-oblong to ovate, incisely toothed 
or lobed, or the lateral ones 2-parted, about an inch long; the 4 to 7 sejjals pinkish or 
white; akenes 12 to 20, oblong, with a hooked beak. 

Here belongs Thalictram Fmdlerl, Englm. A smooth apetalous dioecious herb; also, 
Mjosurus minimus, L. A very small herb, with a tuft of linear or spatulate entire 
radical leaves, and solitary flowers on simple scapes; called Mouse-tail, from its lon-^, 
narrow receptacle, densely covered with small akenes. 

3. RANUNCULUS, L. Buttercup. 

Sepals usually 5. Petals 3 to 18. Pistils numerous. Akenes in a head, usually flat- 
tened, beaked with the persistent style. 

§ 1. Aquatic herbs; jjetals white, with a pit at the base, the claw yellow; akenes tranS' 

versely icrinlcled. 

1. R. hederaceus, L., var. Glabrous; stems 6 to 12 inches long, floating; leaves 
commonly all floating, 3 to 8 lines wide, deeply 3-lobed, truncate or cordate at the base; 
the lobes equal, oval or oblong, the lateral ones usually with a broad notch in the apex; 
submersed leaves none or rudimentary and resembling adventitious roots; peduncles 
opposite the upper leaves, thicker than the petiole, 6 to 8 lines long; sepals a line long; 
petals 2 lines long, obovate oblong; stamens 5 to 9; akenes 4 to 6. 

2. R. aquatilis, L., var. tricophyllus, Chaix. Stems long, filiform; leaves all 
submersed and cut into numerous capillary segments, which are 4 to 10 lines long; flowers 
3 to 5 lines in diameter; akenes numerous in a globular head. 

§ 2. Terrestrial herbs, but often growing in loet places; sepals green; petals yellow^ with 
a scale at the base; akenes neither wrinkled nor hispid. 

* All the leaves undivided, the margins entire. 

3. R. Flammula, L., var. reptans, Gr. Glabrous throughout; stems filiform, creep- 
ing and rooting at the joints, 4 to 10 inches long; leaves mostly lanceolate and acute at 
each end, entire; flowers 2 to 5 lines in diameter; petals broadly obovate, one half longer 
than the sepals; akenes few, in a small globular head, plump, smooth; beak very short 
and curved. 

4. R. alismaefolius, Geyer. Similar to the last species, but with stoutish, erect 
etems, longer flowers and obtuse leaves; akenes straight- beaked. 

* * Some or all the leaves ternatehj compound. 

5. R. Califomicus, Benth. More or less hairy; stems erect, or nearly so, 12 to 18 
inches high; radical leaves, commonly pinnately temate, the leaves laciniately cut into 
3 to 7 parts, which are usii,ally linear; flowers bright yellow, 5 to 10 lines in diameter; 


petals 10 to 14, narrowly obovate; sepals shorter than the petals, reflexed; akenes nearly 
2 lines long, flat, with sharp edges; beak short and curved; heads compact, ovato or 

This is by far the most common species, and usually the only one collected by begin- 
ners. It v^aries greatl)^ The leaves are sometimes simply three lobed and sometimes 
much cut up. 

6. R. macranthus, Scheele. Stem.s stout, 2 to 5 ft. high; flowers 14 to 18 lines in 
diameter; petals commonly 5 or 6, broadly obovate, shining yellow. 

§ 3. Akenes rougJi; otherwise as in § 2. 

7. R. hebecarpus, Hook. & Am. Rather slender, more or less hairy; flowers 
minute; petals 5, not more than a line long; sepals hairy, about equaling the petals. 

8. R. muricatus, L. Smooth; flowers 5 or more lines in diameter; akenes large 
and rough, with recurved beaks. Introduced from Europe. 

4. AQUILEGIA, Toum. Columbine. 

Sepals 5, regular, colored and petal-like; petals 5, produced backward (upward) into a 
long tubular spur; stamens numerous, exserted, the inner ones reduced to thin scales; 
pistils 5; styles slender. Flowers nodding, showy, terminating the branches. 

1. A. truncata, Fisch. & Mey. Stems 1 to 3 ft. high; flowers usually red, tinged 
with orange or yeUow; leaves usually ternately compound, leaflets lobed. 

5. DELPHINIUM, Toum. Larkspur. 

Sepals 5, colored and petal-like, very irregular, the upper one prolonged backwards at 
the base into a long spur, which (in our species) contains spur-like prolongations of the 
upper pair of petals. Petals 4, small and irregular. Stamens many. Pistils 1 to 5. Erect 
herbs, with palmately-cleft, lobed, or dissected leaves, and racemose flowers. 

1. D. simplex, Dougl. Canescent throughout, with a fine, short, somewhat woolly 
pubescence, rarely smooth; stem stout and strict, 1 to 3 ft. high, leafy; leaves all much 
dissected with linear obtuse lobes, on stout, erect petioles; racemes usually dense and 
many-flowered, the pedicels often short and nearly erect; flowers small, blue, varying to 
nearly white or yellowish; sepals 4 or 5 lines long, about equaling the stout, straight 
spur; ovaries and capsule pubescent. 

2. D. variegatum, Torr. & Gr. Foliage similar to the last, but the flowers much 
larger, on longer pedicels, forming a short, open raceme; ovary and capsule pubescent. 

3. D. decorum. Fisch. & May. Lower leaves 5-lobed, sparingly toothed, the upper 
with narrow divisions. Flowers similar to the last, but the spur is usually longer, and 
the ovary and capsule smooth. 

4. D. Californicum, Torr. & Gr. Stems stout, 2 to 7 ft. high; leaves large, 3 to 


5 cleft, the divisions variously lobed; pedicels and dull bluish flowers densely velvety 

D. nudicaule, Torr. & Gr. Distinguished by its red flowers. 

6. ACONITUM, Tourn. Monkshood. 

Sepals 5, colored and petal-like, very irregular; the upper one arched into a hood or 
helmet, which conceals the spur-like blades of the ujjper pair of petals. General appear- 
ance similar to Df'lplunium. 

1. A. Columbianum, Nutt. Sufficiently characterized by the generic description- 

7. P-ZE30NIA, L. 

Sepals 5, herbaceous. Petals 5 to 10. Stamens inserted on a fleshy disk. Pistils 
2 to 5. Fruit leathery follicles. Perennial herbs with compound leaves. 

1. P. Brownii, Dougl. Leaves thick, 1-2-tcrnately compound, the leaflets temately 
and pinnately lobed, glaucous; petals leathery, dull, dark red, about equaling the sepals. 


Shrubs or herbs, with compound alternate exstipulate leaves; flowers remarkable for 
having the bracts, sepals, petals and stamens before each other, instead of alternating. 

Low shrubs, with rigid pinnate leaves and small yellow flowers Berberis. 1 

A fern-like herb, with white flowers Vancouveria. 2 

1. BERBERIS, L. Barberry. 

Sepals, petals, and stamens 6 each, with 3 or 6 bractlets. Carpel 1, forming a berry. 
Smooth shrul)s, with yellow wood, and yellow flowers in bracteate racemes. 

* Leaflets pinnately veined. 

1. B. repens, Lindl. Less than a foot high; leaflets 3 to 7, ovate, acute, 1 to 2| 
inches long, not shiny above; short racemes terminating the stems. 

2. B. Aquifolium, Pursh. 2 to 4 ft. high ; leaflets 7 or more, the lower pair distant 
from the stem, 1| to 4 inches long, shining above, spiny; racemes chiefly clustered in 
Bubterminal axils. 

3. B. pinnata, Lag. Like the last species, but the leaves more crowded, and the 
lower pair of leaflets near the base of the petiole; usually 5 to 7 leaflets. 

* * Leaflets palmatebj nerved. 

4. B. nervosa, Pursh. Simple stems but a few inches high; leaves 1 to 2 ft. long, 
of 11 to 17 leaflets. 


2. VANCOUVERIA, Morren & Decaisne. 

Sepals and petals 6 each, reflexed, with G to 9 bractlets. Stamens 6. Carpel 1 ; the 
stigma Clip-shaped. A slender perennial herb, with radical 2-3-temately compound, 
leaves, and the open paniculate raceme upon a naked scape. 

V. hexandra, Morr. & Dec. The long petioled leaves rising like the fronds of a 
fern, leaflets 1 to 2 inches broad, petiolulate, obtusely 3-lobed, the margin thickened; 
the minute flowers on a scape exceeding the leaves. 

Ordee 3. NYMPH-^ACE^. 

Aquatic perennial herbs, with peltate or deeply cordate leaves; solitary axillary perfect 
flowers on long peduncles. Stamens numerous. 

Watfr-Slileid. {Brasenia jjeltata, Pursh.) May be found in ponds. Its elliptical, pel- 
tate, floating leaves (green above and brownish-red beneath) and its jelly-coated stems 
characterize it quite well enough. 

The Yellow Fond-Lily {Nupliar pobjsepalum, Engk) is more common. 

The Order Sarracenlaoeae is represented by the remarkable Darlingtonia Californica, 
or California Pitcher Plant, which grows in cold swamps in the northern part of the 
State, from Mount Shasta to near the coast. 

Frankenia <jraridifoUa grow3 in saline soils, and may be known by its opposite sessile, 
obovate, or linear oblanceoiate, small leaves, with revolute margins; and by its small, 
pink flowers. It may be distinguished from a Silene, which at first it seems to be, by its 
fewer (4 to 7) stamens and sessile flowers. 

The Order Pranlieaiaces should come next to Caryophyllacece. Fremontla Califor- 
nica, belonging to the Order Gterciiliacea3, which is allied to the MalvacGS, is most 
conveniently described hero also. It is a small tree, bearing conspicuous yellow flowers 
in the axils of usually Ijroadly cordate, lobed leaves. The apetalous flowers are some- 
times 2 or 3 inches across. 

The Order Capparidaceae is represented in Santa Barbara County, and southward, by 
Isomeris arborta, a low shrub, bearing bracteate racemes of yellow flowers, the pistils 
conspicuous on account of their long stipes. The flowers of this plant are apparently 
like those of the CruciferjE, and its proper place is next to that order. Capers are ob- 
tained from a cultivated plant of this order. 

The Order Styracaceae is represented by Styrax Californica, a pretty shrub, bearing 
clusters of nearly rotate white flowers, in which the gamopetalous corolla is cut down to 
the short tube which is adnate to the tube formed by the stamens: Calyx truncate 




Order 4. PAPAVERACEi^ 

On the left above is represented 

an opening bud of Eschscholtzia. 

The cap-like calyx has been split at 

the bottom and shoved uj)ward by 

the expanding petals. Next to this 
bud is an open flower of Meconopsis and one of its nodding buds. Behind the flower, 
and projecting above it to the right, is a stem from wliich the petals have just fallen. 
The slender filaments bending to one side, as they often do, show the curious pistil 
which in time becomes the pretty fluted capsule seen below. To tlie right of the Meco- 
nopsis pod is the three-sided capsule of Platystigma lineare. The stem should have a 
few hairs upon it. The two flowers with hairy stems, the nodding buds below, and the 
rough seed pod above, belong to Platystemon. Observe the three caducous sepals, just 
ready to drop from the opening bud. The smooth plant on the right is Platystigma 
Californicum. If you choose you may call this the Smooth Platystigma, and the other 
species, with the triangular pod, Hairy Platystigma. The exceedingly prickly Bristly 
Argemone is represented on the right, below, by a bud and a couple of bracts. A pistil 
with its white prickles is imperfectly shown against one of the bracts. 

The Order Papaveracese is characterized by flowers with 2 or 3 caducous sepals, 


twice as many free petals in two sets, indefinite, usually numerous, free stamens, and a 
compound pistil. In Eschscholtzia the sepals are united, and the stamens adhere to the 
claws ot the petals. 

This small but interesting order of plants, with the exception of one species, is con- 
fined to the northern hemisphere. Fifteen species, belonging to eleven genera, are natives 
of the United States, and several European species have become naturalized. Esch- 
scholtzia and Platystemon are the most widely distributed of the California genera. 

Romneya Coulteri is a half shrubby plant, with smooth pinnatifid leaves and very large white flowers 
(3, 4, or even G inches across) , a native of the coast from San Diego to Santa Barbara County. 

Ardomecon is another white-flowered plant, with somewhat hairy, nearly entire leaves; the petals 
persistent; found in South Nevada aud Utah. 

Canbya, a recently discovered plant of south-east California, is the smallest of the order, being 
scarcely an inch in heigh:. The small white petals are persistent. 

Papaver Somniferum, a native of Asia, furnishes opium, which is the dried juice of the plant. A 
variety of this f pjce < is cu.tivateJ in ihis State for the seed-;, from which is expressed poppy oil, used 
by artists. This oil is also used as a substitute for olive oil in the preparation of salads, etc. 

* Jlerbs trill entire leaves, the tq^permost ichorled or opposite, sejxds 3. 

Filiform stigmas G to many (pistil hollow) Platystemon. 1 

Flat stigmas 3 Platystigma. 2 

♦ * Herhs with divided or lohed leaves. 

Slightly lobed stigma, style distinct; sepals 2 Meconopsis. 3 

Filiform stigmas unequal; sepals united to form a conical cap Eschscholtzia. 4 

Entire plant bristly with prickles; sepals 3, each with a horn Argemone. la 

* * * Shrub trith entire leaves. 
Buds globular; stigmas 2 Dendromecon. 5 


Sepals 2 or 8, spinosely beaked. Petals 4 or 6. Stamens numerous, with linear 
anthers. Leaves sinuately pinnatifid, prickly toothed. 

1, A. hispida, Gr. (Chicalote). Erect, armed with rigid bristles and prickles; leaves 
3 to 6 inches long; flowers, nearly white, 2 to 4 inches in diameter; capsule 1 J inches 

1. PLATYSTEMON, Benth. Cream-Cups. 

Sepals 3. Petals 6. Stamens many, with flattened filaments and linear anthers. 
Torulose carpels at first united; stigmas free. 

1. P. Californicus, Benth. Slender, branching, 6 to 12 inches high; villous, with 
spreading hairs; leaves 2 to 4 inches long, sessile or clasping, broadly linear, obtuse, 


pale-green. Sepals hairy; petals pale-yellow, shading to orange in the center, 3 to G 
lines long. 


Sepals 3. Petals 4 to 6. Stamens few or many, with narrow filaments. Ovary 
3-angled, oblong or linear; stigmas 3, ovate to linear. Low, slender annuals, resembling 
Platystemon in habit, with pale-green, entire, opposite or verticillate leaves and lon-y- 
peduncled pale-yellow or creamy- white flowers. 

1. P. lineare, Benth. Hairy, short-stemmed; stamens many, with dilated fila- 
ments; stigmas br-'ad; capsule ovate. 

2. P. Calilornicum, Benth. & Hook. Smooth, long-stemmed; stamens few (10 to 
12) with filiform filaments; stigmas narrow; capsule linear. 

3. MECONOPSIS, Viguier. 

Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous, with filiform filaments and oblong anthers. 
Style distinct; stigma 4-8-lobed. Seeds numerous. 

1. M heterophylla, Benth. Annual, smooth, slender, 1 to 2 ft. high; lower leaves 
long petioled, pinnately divided, the segments oval to linear and 2 to 12 lines long; upper 
leaves sessile; flowers scarlet to orange, the petals 2 to 12 lines long; peduncles elongated. 
Very variable. 

4. ESCHSCHOLTZIA, Chamisso. 

Sepals coherent into a narrow pointed hood, which drops off from the top shaped torus 
when the flower opens. Petals 4. Stamens numerous, with short filaments and long 
anthers. Smootl^ annuals, with colorless, bitter juice; finely dissected, pale-gi-een alter- 
nate petioled leaves, and bright orange or yellow (rarely white) flowers. 

1. E. CaLfornica, Cham. Has stout branching stems, 1 to 1^ ft. high; flowers 2 
to 4 inches in diameter, brilliant orange toward the center; capsule 2^ inches long, curved. 

Var. Douglasii, Gr. More slender; flo%vers yellow. 

Var. caespitosa, Brewer. Scape-like peduncles; small yellow flowers. 


Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous, with short filaments and linear anthers. 
Ovary linear; style short; stigmas 2, short and erect. The many seeded capsule dehis- 
cent the whole length by 2 valves separating from the placental ribs. A smooth 
branching shrub, with alternate vertical entire thick and rigid leaves and sho\^y yellow 
flowers. The only true woody plant belonging to the order. 

1. D. rigidum, Benth. A shrub 2 to 8 ft. high, with slender branches and whitish 
bark; leaves ovate to linear-lanceolate, 1 to 3 inches long, very acute or mucronate, 
sessile or nearly so, twisted into a vertical position, margin rough or denticulate. 


Order 5. FUMARIACE^. 

Tender herbs witli dissected compound leaves, and irregular hypogynous flowers, the 
parts in twos, except the 6 diadelphous stamens. 

1. DICENTRA, Borkh. 

Sepals 2, small and scale-like, sometimes caducous. Corolla of two pairs of petals, 
flattened and cordate; the outer pair the larger and sacked at the base, the tips spreading; 
th3 inner, spoon-shaped, lightly united at the apex, inclosing the anthers and stigma. 
Stamens in two sets, 3 before each of the outer petals, filaments slightly cohering. 
Style slender; stigma 2-lobed, each lobe sometimes 2-crested. 

1. D. formosa, DC. Leaves radical, and the compound racemes of rose-colored 
flowers borne on naked scapes. 

2. D. chrysantlia, Hook. & Am. The flowers in long terminal paniculate racemes 
on leafy stems; corolla narrow, scarcely cordate, golden yellow. 

Order 6. CRUCIFERiE. 

Herbs with pungent watery juice. Sepals 4. Petals 4, with blade narrowed into a 
claw, the lamina spreading to form a cross, rarely wanting. Stamens 6, two of them 
inserted lower down on the receptacle and shorter than the other four. Ovary 2-celled 
by a thin partition, rarely 1 -celled. Leaves alternate, and flowers usually in racemes 
without bracts. 

Since a careful examination of the fruit is usually necessary for the determination of 

species in this difficult order, only such plants as have large flowers or remarkable fruit 

are here described. 

§ 1. Pod dehiscent, 2-valved. 

* Pod elongated, compressed parallel with the partition; seeds flat. 

Pctioled leaves, lobed or divided; root tuberous Cardamine. 1 

Stem leaves sessile, entire; root perpendicular. 

Flowers purple Arabis. 2 

Flowers orange Cheiranthus. 3 

Flowers yellowish Erysimum. 4 

* * Pod terete; seeds globose. 
Flowers Yellow .' Brassica. 5 

* * * Pod flattened contrary to the partition. 

Pod linear; flowers axillary, yellow Tropidocarpum. 6 

Pod obcordate; flowers minute Capsella. 7 

Pod obovate, 2-winged at the top Lepidium. 8 

CRUCIFEEiS. (mustard FAMILY.) 23 

§ 2. Pod in dehiscent, 1-celled, 
Pod orbicular, winged with a thin broad margin; flowers minute. ..Thysanocarpus. 9 
Pod long, pithy; seeds large; flowers large, veiny - . . Raphanus. 10 


Pod linear, with somewhat thickened margins, merely pointed or beaked above; valves 
flat, nerveless. Seeds in one row somewhat flattened, wingless; cotyledons flat, accum- 
bent. Sepals equal. Petals white or pinkish. 

1. C. paucisecta, Benth. Stems from small deep-seated tubers, erect, 8 to IS inches 
high; leaves various; the upper deeply lobed or parted, the lower often simple; petals 
6 to 9 lines long; pods 1 to l^- inches long. 

2. ARABIS. L. 

Pod linear; valves 1 -nerved, not strongly. Seeds in 1 or 2 rows, flattened; cotyledons 
accumbent. Sepals short or narrow, rarely colored. Petals with a narrow claw, white, 
rose-colored, or purple. 

1. A. blepharophylla, Hook. & Am. Stems often tufted 4 to 12 inches high; 
leaves strongly ciliate, sometimes sparingly sinuate-toothed, the lower obovate or broadly 
Bpatulate, the cauline oblong, sessile; petals bright purple, 6 to 9 lines long. 

2. A. Bre-weri, Wat. Cespitose, canescent, with dense stellate pubescence; stems 2 to 
10 inches high; petals 1 to 4 lines long, deep rose-color; sepals purplish; pods spreading 
or recurved. 


Pod elongated, compressed; valves 1 -nerved or carinate. Seeds in one row, flattened, 
not winged; cotyledons accumbent, or rarely oblique. Calyx not colored, the outer sepals 
strongly gibbous. Stigma with two spreading lobes. 

1. C. asper, Cham. & Sch. Eather sparingly pubescent with appressed 2-parted 
hairs; stem simple erect, leafy, 1 to 3 ft. high; leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, the lower 
long petioled, entire or sinuate-toothed; sepals broad 4 to 6 lines long, half the length 
of the bright yellow or orange petals; pods 1^ to 2 inches long. 


Pod 4-angled by the prominent mid-nerve of the valves, not stipitate; cotyledons 
incumbent or oblique. Sepals, petals and stigma like the last. 

1. E. asperum, DC. Similar to the last; sepals narrower; petals itsually creamy 
white to yellow. 

5. BRASSICA, L. Mustard. 

Pod nearly terete or somewhat 4-sided, pointed with a long conical beak. Seeds in 


one row globose; cotyledons infolding the radical. Lateral sepals usually gibbous. 
Petals yellow. 

1. B. campestris, L. Smooth; lower leaves pinnately divided, with a large ter- 
minal lobe; the upper leaves oblong or lanceolate, with a broad clasping base; pods 2 
inches long or more. 

2. B. nigra, Boiss. Larger; leaves all petioled; pods less than an inch long. 

Not to be confounded M'ith Sisymbrium ofHciuale, Scop., which has runcinately 
pinnatifid leaves, small yellow flowers and closely appressed, subulate sessile pods half 
an inch long; or, with S. acutangulum, DC, similar to the last, but the pods on short 
pedicels, erect and over an inch long. The last are called Hedge Mustards. 


Pod linear, flattened, often 1 -celled by the disappearance of the narrow partition. 
Seeds in two rows, minute; cotyledons incumbent. A low hirsute branching annual, 
with pinnately divided leaves, and yellow, solitary axillary flowers. 

1. T. gracile, Hook. Stems weak; petals 1^ to 3 lines long, broad; pods 6 to 20 
lines long, pointed at both ends. 

7. CAP SELLA, Moench. Shepherd's Purse. 

Pod obcordate, much flattened, many-seeded; cotyledons incumbent. Slender and 
mostly smooth annuals, with minute flowers. 

L C. Bursa-pastoris, Mcench. Somewhat hirsute at base; radical leaves mostly 
runcinate-pinnatifid, the cauline lanceolate, clasping. 

2. C. divaricata, Walp. Very slender; pods elliptic-oblong; is more rare. 

8. LEPIDIUM, L. Peppergrass. 

Pod orbicular or obovate, emarginately 2- winged at the summit; the cells 1 -seeded. 
Low herbs, with pinnatifid or toothed leaves, and small white flowers; the jietals in 
some species wanting, and the stamens only 2 or 4. 

1. L. latipes, Hook. Stems stout, simple 1 io 3 inches high, surpassed by the 
irrefnilarly and coarsely pinnatifid leaves; racemes capitate, in fruit an inch long or less; 
sepals very unequal; pod strongly reticulated, the acute wings nearly as long. 

2. L. oxycarpum, Torr. & Gr. Stems simple or branched 3 to 6 inches high; 
smooth; raceme lax, elongated; pod smooth, rounded, nodding, the broad acute teeth 
short and divergent; petals none. 

3. L. nitidum, Nutt. Similar to the last, but larger; petals present; pods smooth 
and shining, acutely margined. 

4. L. Menziesii, DC. Hispid; petals none; pods not margined, except by the 
very short teeth at the summit. 

"vaoLACEa:. (violet family.) 25 

Var. (?) strictum, Wat. Sepals green, persistent; fruiting racemes crowded cylin- 
dric-capitate, the pedicels erect, low and spreading. This plant seems to be a separate 
epecies. It has been found in San Francisco, by Jliss Annie Hughes. 


Pod 1 -celled, 1 -seeded, plano-convex, mostly pendulous on slender pedicels. Flowers 
minute, white or rose-colored. 

1. T. curvipes, Hook. Six inches to two feet high; the upper leaves clasping by a 
broad auricled base; pods densely tomentose or smooth, 2 to 4 lines in diameter, the wing 
entire or crenate, veined and often perforate, emarginate at the top and tipped with the 
purple style. The perforate-wing form called Lace-pod. 

2. T. laciniatus, Nutt. Smaller and more slender; the cauline leaves scarcely 
auricled at the base; pods obovate, cuneate at the base, 2 to 3 lines long. 

Var. crenatus, Brewer. The broader wing deeply crenate or fringed. Fi-inge-jtod. 

3. T. radians, Benth. Pods round, 4 to 5 lines in diameter, scarcely emarginate, 
with a broad entire translucent wing conspicuously marked by radiating nerves. 

4. T. pusillus, Hook. May be known by its minute pods hirsute with hooked hairs. 

10. RAPHANUS, L. Padish. 
Coarse introduced annuals. 

1. R. sativus, L. , has a pointed 2-seeded pod. 

2. R. Raphanistrum, L., has a necklace-shaped pod, long beaked, 1-9-seeded, 

Oeder 7. CISTACEiE. 

Flowers perfect and regular. Sepals 5, persistent; and two of them smaller, wholly 
exterior, and bract-like. Petals 5, usually ej)hemeral. Stamens indefinite, with filiform 
filaments; anthers short. Style one. Capsule 3-valved. 


Petals broad. Stamens numerous (about 20). Style short; stigma 3-lobed. Low 
branching herbs, or somewhat woody; flowers yellow, opening only once, in sunshine. 

1. H. scoparium, Nutt. Much branched, hairy or smooth, about a foot high; leaves 
narrow, 4 to 12 lines long, alternate; flowers on slender pedicels, one or several termin- 
ating the branches; petals 4 lines long. 

Order 8. VIOLACEiE. 

Herbs distinguished by the irregular one-spurred corolla of 5 petals, 5 stamens, adnata 
introse anthers conniving over the pistil, which has a club-shaped style with a one sided 

26 YIOLACE^. (violet FAMILY.) 

Btigma, a one celled ovary, forming a capsule, which splits at maturity into three parts. 
Represented only by the familiar genus 

1. VIOLA, L. 

Sepals unequal, auricled at the base. Petals unequal, lower one spurred. Anthers 
nearly sessile, often coherent, the connectives of the two lower bearing spurs which are 
inclosed by the spur of the petal. (See Addenda. ) 

* Leaves undivided. 

4- Flowers not yellow, or orange. 

1. V. canina, L., var. adunca, Gr. Flowers violet or purple. Low stems sending 
out runners; leaves ovate, often somewhat cordate at the base, obscurely crenate; stipules 
foliaceous, narrowly lanceolate, lacerately toothed; spur as long as the sepals, curved; 
lateral petals bearded. 

Var. lougipes, Wat. The obtuse spur straight. 

2. V. ocellata, Torr. & Gr. Stems nearly erect, 6 to 12 inches high; leaves cordate 
to cordate-ovate, acutish, conspicuously crenate; stipules small, scarious; upper petals 
white within, purple-brown without, the others pale-yellow veined mth purple. 

-i--i- Flowers yellow, tinged with purple. 

3. V. pedunculata, Torr. & Gr. Stems with a decumbent or procumbent base; 
leaves -rombic-cordate, with truncate or abruptly cuneate base, obtuse, coarsely crenate; 
stipules foliaceous, narrowly lanceolate, entire or gashed; showy flowers on peduncles 
exceeding the leaves; petals 6 to 9 lines long, the upper tinged with brown on the outside, 
the others veined with deep purple; lateral petals bearded; capsule smooth. 

4. V. aurea, Kellogg. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, cuneate or sometimes truncate 
at base, obtuse, coarsely crenate; stipules foliaceous, lanceolate, laciniate; peduncle but 
little longer than the leaves; petals 4 to 6 lines long, as in the last, but lighter yellow; 
capsule pubescent. 

5. V. Nuttallii, Pursh. Leaves oblong-ovate to oblong, attenuate into a long 
petiole, entire, or obscurely .sinuate; stipules entire; peduncles usually shorter than the 

-i-4--f- Flowers yellow. 

6. V. sarmentosa, Dougl. Leaves rounded-cordate, reniform, or sometimes ovate, 
finely crenate, usually punctate with dark dots. Flowers small. 

* * Leaves divided or lobed; flowers yellow, tinged with brown-purple. 

7. V. lobata, Benth. Distinguished by its stout stems and large palmately 5 to 
9-lobed leaves. Flowers large. 

8. V. chrysantha. Hook. Stems short; leaves bipinnatifid, with narrow seg- 
ments. Flowers large, like V. pedunculata, but the lateral petals are not bearded. 



Herbs or shrubs, with simple entire exstipulate leaves, remarkable for the papilio- 
naceous-looking flowers. In our genus the ovary is 2-celled. 

1. POLY GALA, Toum. 

Sepals 5, very unequal, the 2 lateral ones large and petal-like. Petals 3, united to 
each other and to the stamen-tube, the middle one hooded and often crested or beaked. 
Stamens C to 8, the filaments united below into a split sheath, adnate at the base to the 
petals. The 2-celled ovary forms a capsule flattened contrary to the partition, notched 
or retuse above. 

1. P. cucullata, Benth. Stems slender from a woody base, 2 to 8 inches high; leaves 
Bmooth, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-elliptical, h to 1 inch long, short petioled; flowers 
rose-color; outer sepals 2^ lines long, rounded-saccate at the base; the wings broadly 
epatulate, 4 to G lines long. 

2. P. Califoriiica, Nutt. Stouter; flowers greenish white. 


Herbs with regular and mostly perfect flowers, persistent calyx, its parts and the petals 
4 or 5 and imbricated or the latter sometimes convolute in the bud, the distinct stamens 
commonly twice as many as the petals, ovary 1 -celled with a free central placenta. Stems 
usually swollen at the nodes. Leaves opposite, often united at the base by a transverse 
line, in one group with interposed scarious stij)ules. Styles 2 to 5, mostly distinct. 
Fruit a capsule opening by valves, or by teeth at the summit. Flowers terminal, or in 
the forks, or in cymes. 

Many s^jecies in this order are difficult to determine. 

* Sepals united into a 4:-5-toot7ied calyx. Petals long-clawed. 
Petals with bifid appendages Silene. 1 

* * Sepals distinct; petals loithout claws. 

Petals bifid; capsule cylindric Cerastium. 2 

Petals bifid capsule globose Stellaria. 3 

Petals entire; capsule globose Arenaria. 4 

Stipules present; styles 5 Spergula. 5 

Stipules present; styles 3 Lepigonum. 6 

1. SILENE, L. 

Calyx tubular, cylindrical to campanulate, 5-toothed, 10-nerved. Petals 5, with nar- 


row claws; the blade mostly bifid or many-cleft and usually crowned with 2 scales at 
the base. Stamens 10; styles 3, erect. Capsule dehiscent by 6, rarely 3 teeth. 

1. G. Gallica, L. Hairy; leaves spatulate, 1 to IJ inches long; calyx oblong- 
cylindric, becoming expanded by the growth of the ovoid capsule; flowers small, rose- 
colored, in one-sided close racemes; petals entire, slightly twisted. 

2. S. Californica, Durand. Glandular-pubescent; stems C inches to 3 ft. high, 
lax, leafy; flowers large, deep scarlet, few at the ends of the branches; calyx 7 to 10 lines 
long; petals deeply parted with bifid segments, the lobes 2-3-toothed or entire, with 
often a lateral one. 

3. G. Douglasii, Hook. Stems simple few-flowered; leaves narrowly oblanceolate 
to linear, an inch or two long; calyx oblong-cylindric, often inflated, 5 to 7 lines long; 
petals rose-color or nearly white; 8 to 10 lines long, bifid with broad obtuse lobes; claw 
broadly auricled; capsule oblong-ovate, long stiped. 

2. CERASTIUM, L. Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, emarginate or bifid. Stamens 10. Styles 5, rarely less. The 
curved capsule dehiscing by twice as many teeth as there are styles. Flowers white. 

1. C. pilosum, Ledeb. Erect, rather stout, more or less densely pilose; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, ^ to an inch or more long, acute, almost sheathing at the base; flowers 
from 5 to 1 inch in diameter. 

C. AEVENSE, L., has downy acute leaves. 

C. vuLGATUM, L., has ovate or obovate obtuse leaves; flowers clustered. 

3. STELLARIA, L. Chickweed. 

Sepals 5, rarely 4. Petals as many, 2-cleft. Stamens 10, or fewer by abortion. Low 
herbs with minute white flowers and 4-angled stems. 

1. S. media, L. Weak and spreading, rooting at the lower joints; the ovate leaves 
less than an inch long on hairy petioles, or the upper ones sessile; stamens 3 to 10. 

Introduced from Europe. 

2. G. nitens. Nutt. , has small sessile lanceolate leaves and narrow shining sepals 
surpassing the minute petals. 

3. G. littoralis, Torr., is rather a stout hairy plant, with ovate leaves; flowers in 
a terminal cyme. May be found on the sea-shore. 

4. ARENARIA, L. Sandwort. 

Distinguished chiefly from Stellaria by the entire petals and usually by the tufted 
stems and subulate rigid leaves. In our species the 3 valves of the capsule are entire; 
bracts foliaceous. 

1. A, Douglasii, Torr. & Gr. Slender, much branched, 3 to 6 inches high; leaves 


filiform, 3 to 12 lines long; flowers on long slender pedicels; sepals 3-nerved; petals obovate, 
2 lines long or more; longer than the sepals. 

2. A. Califoriiica, Brew. Leaves lanceolate, 1 or 2 lines long; flowers smaller than 
the last; petals sijatulate. 

3. A. palustris, Wat. Stems weak, 4 to 8 inches high; leaves linear, flaccid, 6 to 
12 lines long; flowers few on long pedicels; petals 3 or 4 lines long. In swamps. 

5. SPERGULA, L. Corn-Spurkt. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 10, rarely 5. Ovary 1-celled, many-ovuled; 
styles 5, alternate with the sepals. Annuals dichotomously branched, with awl-shaped 
apparently whorled leaves (fascicled). 

1. S. arvensis, L. The almost filiform leaves 1 or 2 inches long; flowers white, the 
Jong pedicels at length reflexed. Naturalized. 

6. LEPIGONUM, Fries. Saotj-Sptjrry. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire, rarely fewer. Stamens 10, or fewer by abortion. Ovary 
1-celled, many ovuled; styles 3, or rarely 5. Low herbs, with setaceous or linear fascicled 
leaves; flowers white or pink, pediceled. 

1. L. macrothecum, Fisch. & Mey. Pather stout, often a foot high; leaves fleshy 
I to 2 inches long, with large ovate stipulec; jjedicels becoming reflexed; sepals 3 or 
more lines long, equaling the pinkish petals. In salt-marshes. 

2. L. medium, Fries. More slender than the last, with smaller flowers on shorter 


Succulent herbs, with simple and entire leaves, and regular but unsymmetrical perfect 
flowers; the sepals only 2, the petals 2 to 5 or more; the stamens opposite the petals 
when of the same number; the ovary 1-celled. Stamens sometimes indefinitely numerous, 
commonly adhering to the base of the petals, these sometimes united at the base. Style 
2 to 8-cleft. Stipules none. 

* Sepals 2, distinct, persistent. 

Stamens more than 5 Calandrinia. 1 

Stamens 5 Clay tonia. 2 

* * Sepals 4 to 8 Lewisia. 3 


Petals mostly 5 (3 to 10). Stamens 5 to 15. Ovary free, many-ovuled; style 3-clcft, 
short. Capsule globose or ovoid, 3-valved. Seeds shining-black. Low succulent herbs 
with alternate leaves. 


1. C. Menziesii, Hook. Smooth, branching from the base, the stems ascending; 
leaves linear to oblanceolate, 1 to 3 inches long, the lower on slender petioles; sepals 
keeled, the calyx 4-angled in the bud; petals broadly obovate, red to purple, 2 to G lines 
long. One of the most abundant of open ground early flowers. 


Petals 5, equal. Stamens 5. Style 3-cleft. Capsule and seeds as in Calandrinia. 
Eadical leaves numerous; cauline perfoliate, or a pair. 

1. C. perfoliata, Donn. Stems 2 to 12 inches high; radical leaves long-petioled, 
broadly rhomboidal, or deltoid, or deltoid-cordate, ^ to 3 inches broad, obtuse; the cauline 
pair usually united to form an almost orbicular perfoliate leaf, concave above; the lax 
raceme of small pinkish flowers nearly sessile in the leaf-cup. 

Var. parvifloia, Torr. Eadical leaves linear, or linear-spatulate. 

Var. spathulata, Torr. Eadical leaves linear; the cauline pair distinct or partly 
united on one side, ovate to lanceolate. Low and slender. 

Var. esigua, Torr. Low, radical leaves narrowly linear or filiform; the cauline 
distinct, linear. 

2. C. Siberica, L. Stems- 6 to 15 inches high; radical leaves lanceolate to rombic- 
ovate or nearly orbicular, long-petioled; the cauline pair ovate or varying from lanceolate 
to spatulate-obovate, sessile, distinct; raceme loose; the rose-colored or white petals 2 to 
4 lines long. 

3. LS'WISIA, Pursh. 

Petals 8 to 16, large and showy, rose-colored. Stamens numerous (40 or more). Style 
3 to 8-parted nearly to the base. Low acaulescent fleshy perennials, with fusiform roots, 
and short 1 -flowered scapes. 

1. L. rediviva, Pursh. Leaves densely clustered, linear-oblong, subterete, 1 or 2 
inches long, smooth and glaucous; scape jointed in the middle, bearing on the joint 5 to 
7 subulate verticillate bracts; petals sometimes white, 8 to 16 lines long. 

Order 12. HYPERICACEiE. 

Herbs or shrubs, with opposite entire punctate leaves, no stipules and perfect flowers 
with 4 or 5 petals and numerous stamens, the fruit a septicidal many-seeded capsule. 
Calyx of 4 or 5 persistent sepals. Filaments mostly in 3 sets. Styles 2 to 5, usually 

1. HYPERICUM, L. St. John's-wort. 

Sepals and petals 5. The numerous stamens in three bundles. Ovary 1 to 3-celled, 
the o\ailes growing on the parietal placentae. Flowers cymose, yellow. 

MALVACE^. (mallow FAMILY.) 31 

1. H. Scouleri. Hook. Stems erect from a running rootstock ^ to 2 feet high, 
terete, simple or sparingly branched ; leaves ovate to oblong, clasping, an inch or less 
long ; petals punctate, 3 to 5 lines long; capsule 3-celled. 

2. H. concinnum, Benth. Stems from a woody base, 3 to 6 inches high; leaves 
from oblong to linear, acute, an inch long or less, not clasping, usually folded. 

3. H. anagalloides, Cham & Schlecht. Stems numerous, weak, rooting at the 
lower joints, 1 to 10 inches long; leaves broadly ovate or elliptical, 2 to 6 inches long, 
obtuse, clasping; sepals exceeding the petals; capsule 1-celled. 

Order 13. MALVACEiE. 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate stipulate leaves; distinguished by the valvate calyx, 
convolute petals, their bases or short claws united with the base of a column of many 
united stamens, these with reniform anthers. Calyx 5-cleft or parted, persistent, with 
sometimes a calyx-like' involucel of bracts. Petals 5, usually withering without 
falling off. Pistil usually either a ring of ovaries around a projecting receptacle or a 
3-10-celled ovary; styles united at least at the base. Leaves usually palmately ribbed- 
Flowers axillary. (See Addenda.) 

1. LAVATERA, L. Tree I^Iallow. 

Involucel 3 to 6-cleft. Stamineal column divided into numerous filaments. Styles 
filiform. Fruit depressed ; the several carpels separating from the prominent axis, 
1 -seeded. 

1. L. assurgentiflora, Kellogg. A shrub 6 to 15 ft. high; flowers 1 to 4 in the 
axils on drooping pedicels; petals rose-purple, 1 to 1| inches long, with a broad truncate 
limb and narrow claws having a pair of dense hairy tufts at the base. Commonly culti- 
vated, but a native (?) of this State. 

2. MALVA, L. Mallow. 

Involucel . 3-leaved. Petals obcordate, small. Herbaceous. Otherwise as Lavatera. 

M. borealis, Wallman. Annual; leaves round-cordate, crenate, 5-7-lobed; peduncles 
short; petals pinkish-white, 2 or 3 lines long. 

Distinguished from the biennial M. rotundifolia by its short pedunceles, small flowers 
and rugose carpels. 


Involucel none. Stamineal column double; the filaments of the outer series usually 
united into 5 sets, opposite the petals. Flowers in a terminal raceme or spike. Herbs. 

* Perennial. 
1. S. malvaeflora, Gr. Perennial, 1 to 3 ft. high; leaves on elongated petioles, 

32 LINAGES. (flax FAMILY.) 

orbicular to semi-circular in outline; the lower toothed or cleft, the upper more narrowly 
and deeply, 5 to 9-lobed or parted; the segments sparingly toothed, often linear and 
entire; flowers in naked elongated racemes; bractlets small, lanceolate; pedicels short, 
naked; calyx often tomentose; petals emarginate, 6 to 12 lines long, purple; carpela 

2. S. humilis, Gr. Much resembling the last, but lower, and often decumbent at 
the base; leaves smaller; flowers fewer and more scattered; calyx larger, 3 to 6 lines 
long; carpels reticulated and pubescent. 

* * Annual. 

3. S. diploscypha, Gr. Pubescent with long spreading hairs, 1 to 2 ft. high; 
leaves deeply 5-9-cleft with lobed segments; bractlets conspicuous, 5 to 7-parted, liispid; 
flowers nearly sessile in close 3 to 5-flowered clusters; petals 6 to 12 lines long, broad and 

4. S. malachroides, Gr. Stout, hirsute, 3 to 6 ft. high, tufted; leaves large; flowers 
small, white or purplish, nearly sessile in close terminal heads on the short leafy branches; 
petals narrowly obcordate; sets of stamens indistinct. 

Oeder 14. IiINACEiE. 

A small order rexDresented and characterized by the one genus 

1. LINUM, L. Flax. 

Parts of the flower 5, except sometimes in the pistil. Filaments united at the base 
with commonly alternating teeth. Styles 5, or sometimes only 2 or 3, distinct or united. 
Stigmas capitate or oblong; ovary globose. Seeds twice as many as the styles. Herbs 
with sessile entire leaves without stipules, and cymose or panicled flowers. 

§ I. Styles 5. Flowers blue. 

1. L. perenne, L. Smooth, 1 to 2h ft. high, branching above, leafy; leaves linear 
to linear-lanceolate, 3 to IS lines long, acute; stipular glands none; flowers on slender 
pedicels, scattered, large. 

§ 2. Styles 3; petals appendaged at base, with a tooth on each side and a third adnate 
to the inner face of the claw. 

* Flowers yellow; pedicels short. 

2. L. . Bre"weri, Gr. Smooth, slender, 3 to 8 inches high or more, few flowered at 
the summit; leaves linear-setaceous, 6 to 8 lines long; stipular glands conspicuous; petals 

3 or more lines long. 

* * Flowers rose-purple to white. 

3. L. congestum, Gr. Nearly smooth, excepting the calyx, about a foot high; 


stipular glands very small; flowers in close terminal clusters; petals about 3 lines long; 
capsule globose. 

4. L. Californicum, Gr. Smooth, glaucous, 6 to IS inches high; stipular glands 
conspicuous; flowers in small cymes or the lower solitary; petals 4 lines long, capsule 
acute, shorter than the calyx. 

5. S. sperguliuum, Gr. Smooth, 6 to 15 inches high; leaves without stipular 
glands; pedicels 3 to G lines long, and mostly solitary; sepals slightly glandular, minute; 
capsule obtuse, exceeding the calyx slightly. 

Order 15. GERANIACE-ffl. 

Flowers perfect on axillary peduncles, regular (in our species) and symmetrical, the 
parts in fives. Stamens mostly in two sets, those alternate with the petals sometimes 
Bterile. Ovary deeply 5-lobed, with a prolonged axis, or 5-celled. 

§ 1. Carpels 5, one-seeded, separating at maturity from the long central axis; the styles 

forming long twisted tails. 

Fertile stamens 10; tails of the carpels not bearded Geranium. 1 

Fertile stamens 5; tails of the carpels bearded Erodium. 2 

§ 2. Carpels 5, one-seeded, fleshy, distinct Limnanthes. 3 

§ 3. Carpels combined into a 5-celled ovary Oxalis. 4 

1. GERANIUM, L. Cranesbill. 

Stamens 10 with anthers, a gland behind the base of each of the shorter 5; filaments 
bearded at the base. Ovary 5-lobed; style 5-lobed at the top; the roundish-oblong carpels 
splitting away from the persistent beaked axis. Leaves palmately lobed and mostly 
opposite, scarious stipules; swollen-jointed stems. 

1. G, Carolinianuni, L. Diffusely branched, pubescent; leaves 1 to 2J inches in 
diameter, palmately 5-7-parted, the divisions cleft into linear lobes; petals rose-colored 
equaling the awned sepals, 2 or 3 lines long; carpels hairy; tails half an inch long. 

G. iucisum, Nutt. , with large purple flowers, grows in the Sierra Nevada, and ia 
Humboldt County. 

2. ERODIUM, L'Her. 

Characters as in the last; but the filaments dilated, the 5 opposite to the petals sterile 
and scale-like; carpels attenuate to a sharp bearded base; the tails long bearded on the 
inner side. Leaves commonly pinnate and bipinnately parted or lobed; peduncles 
umbellately 2-several-flowered with a 4-bracted involucre at the base of the pedicels; 
flowers small. 

1. E. cicutarium, L'Her. (Filaria or Pin-Clover.) Hairy, much branched, 

34 RUTACE^. (orange FAMILY.) 

decumbent; leaves pinnate the leaflets laciniately pinnatifid with narrow acute lobes, 
the opposite leaves unequal; the long peduncles in the axils of the smaller leaves bearing 
4 to 8-flowered umbels; the slender pedicels at length reflexed, the fruit still erect; the 
bearded carpels with spirally twisted tails. 

2. E. mosQhatum, L'Her. (Musky Filaria.) Similar to the last but of a lighter 
green and the leaflets unequally and doubly serrate, not pinnatifid. Gives out a musky 
odor when wilted. 

3. E. macrophyllum, Hook. & Arn. Leaves reniform-cordate, 1 to 3 inches 
broad; sepals broad, 5 to 6 lines long. 


Glands 5, alternating with the petals. Stamens 10. Style 5-cleft at the apex. An- 
nual low diffuse herbs, with pungent juice, growing in wet places; leaves pinnate, 
without stipules; flowers yellowish- white or rose-colored, solitary on axillary peduncles. 

1. L. Douglasii, R. Br. Glabrous, yellowish green, weak and succulent stems; 
leaflets incisely lobed; peduncles at length 2 to 4 inches long; sepals lanceolate, 3 to 4 
lines long, half the length of the oblong or obovate, emarginate or truncate petals. 

Var alba, Hartweg. Villous sepals; shorter, white petals. 

4. OXALIS, L. 

The parts of the flower in fives. Stamens 10; the filaments dilated and united below. 
Capsule columnar or ovoid, beaked with the short style. Low herbs with sour watery 
juice; leaves alternate or radical, digitately trifoliolate, leaflets obcordate. 

1. O. Oregana, Xutt. (Redwood Sorrel.) Acaulescent, rusty- villous; rootstock 
creeping; leaflets broadly obcordate, 1 to l^ inches broad; petioles 2 to 8 inches long; 
scapes equaling or exceeding the leaves, mostly 1-flowered; petals G to 12 lines long, white 
or rose-colored, often veined with jnirple. 

2. O. corniculata, L. (Yellow Sorrel. ) Distinguished by its slender branching 
stems, and smaller yellow flowers. 

Order 16. RUTACEiE. 

Pellucid or glandular-dotted aromatic leaves, along with definite hypogynous stamens 
and definite seeds characterize this order, although some of the orange-tribe have many 

1. PTELEA, L. Hop-tree. 
Flowers polygamous. Sepals, petals and stamens 4 or 5; ovary with a short, thick 


Btipe, 2-celled; style short; fruit a broadly winged orbicular samara, 2-seeded. Flowers 
Bmall, greenish-white, in terminal cymes or compound corymbs. 

1. P. angustifolia, Benth. A shrub 5 to 25 ft. high, with chestnut colored punc- 
tate bark; leaves 3-foliolate. 

Order 17. CELASTRACE^. 

Suffiiciently characterized by the genus 

1. EUONYMUS, Toum. 

Sepals and petals 4 or 5, widely spreading; Stamens as many very short on an angled 
disk; ovary immersed in the disk, 3-5-valved, colored, often warty. Fruit a red aril. 
Shrubs, with 4-angled branches, opposite petioled exstipulate serrate smooth leaves, and 
(lowers in loose cymes on axillary peduncles. 

1. E. occidentalis, Xutt. 7 to 15 ft. high; leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, serrulate, 2 to 4 inches long; peduncles 1-4-flowered; flowers dark reddish- 
brown, 4 to G lines in diameter, the parts in fives. 

Order 18. RHAMNACEiE. 

Shrubs or small trees, with simple undivided leaves, small and often caducous stipules, 
and small regular flowers, the stamens borne on the calyx and alternate vath its lobes; 
ovary 2 to 4-celled. Flowers often apetalous; a conspicuous disk adnate to the short tube 
of the calyx; petals often clawed; style or stigma 2-4-lobed; fi'uit berry-like or dry, con- 
taining 2 to 4 seed-hke nutlets. 

Calyx and disk free from the ovary; filaments short; fruit berry-like Rhamnus. 1 

Calyx and disk adherent to the o%'ary; filaments long; fruit dry Ceanothus. 2 


Small greenish flowers; calyx 4-5-cleft, with erect or spreading lobes, the campanulate 
tube persistent; petals 4 or 5 or none, on the margin of the disk; claws short; stamens 4 
or 5 ; leaves evergreen. 

§ 1. Floicers dioecious, apetalous, solitary or fascicled in the axils. 

1. R. crocea, Nutt. Much branched, 3 to 15 ft. high; leaves coriaceous, oblong 
or obovate to obicular, 3 to 18 lines long, acutely denticulate, usually yellowish brown or 
copper-colored beneath; fruit red. 

§ 2. Flowers mostly perfect in peduncidate cymes. 

2. R. Californica, Esch. Spreading 4 to 18 ft. liigh; leaves ovate-oblong to ellip- 


tical, 1 to 4 inches long, denticulate or nearly entire; petals very small, broadly ovate, 
emarginatej fruit blackish-purple. 


Calyx 5-cleft; the lobes acute; disk thick adhering to the tube and to the ovary; petals 
on long claws, hooded; stamens 5; filaments long-exserted; ovary 3-lobed; style short, 
3-cleft, The small flowers are in showy thyrsoid orcymose clusters. Species difficult. 

§ 1, Leaves 3-nerved. 

1. C. thyrsiflorus, Esch. (California Lilac. ) Smooth, 6 to 15 ft. high; branches 
strongly angled; leaves rather thick, oblong to oblong-ovate, 1 to l^ inches long, usually 
smooth and shining above, canescent beneath; flowers bright blue in dense compound 
racemes, terminating the long and somewhat leafy peduncles. 

2. C. integerriraus, Hook & Am. Slender, 2 or 3 ft. high; branches round, usually 
warty; leaves thin, bright green, ovate to ovate-oblong, 1 to 3 inches long; thyrse large, 

3. C. dentatus, Torr & Gr. Low, not rigid; leaves small glandular-serrate, 
fascicled, the margin strongly undulate or re volute, somewhat resinous; flowers blue, in 
small roundish clusters. 

4. C. sorediatus, Hook & Am. Higid; inflorescence pubescent; leaves silky on 
the nerves, ^ to 1^ inches long; flowers blue in shortly peduncled simple racemes J to 2 
inches long. 

5. C. divaricatus, Nutt. Grayish, usually spinose; leaves small, not tomentosa 
beneath; flowers light blue or white, in nearly simple often elongated racemes, 1 to 4 
inches long; fruit resinous. 

6. C. incanus, Torr & Gr. Spinose; leaves hoary beneatli with a very minute 
tomentum, cuneate to cordate at base; flowers in short racemes, white; fruit resinously 
warty. A straggling shrub along creeks. 

§ 2. Leaves x>innatehj veined. 

7. C. papillosus, Torr. & Gr. More or less hispidly villous or tomentose, 4 to 6 
ft. high; leaves glandular-serrulate, and the upper surface glandular-papillose, narrowly 
oblong, 1 to 2 inches long on slender petioles; flowers blue, in close clusters or short 
racemes, terminating slender naked peduncles; fruit not resinous. 

§ 3. Leaves small, often opposite, very tliick, with numerous straight lateral veins; stipules 
Tnosthj large and wartij; flowers in sessile or shortly 2^eduncled axillary clusters; fruit 
larger, with 3 horn-lihe or warty prominences below the summit. 

8. C. crassifolius, Torr. Erect 4 to 12 ft. high, the young branches white with a 
villous tomentum; leaves somewhat spinosely-toothed or rarely entire and revolutely 
margined; flowers light blue or white, in dense clusters. 


9. C. cuneatus, Kutt, Similar to the last, but less tomentose; leaves cuneate* 
obovate or oblong, retuse above, on slender petioles; flowers in looser clusters. 

10. C. rigidus, Xutt. Erect, 5 ft. high, the branchlets tomentose; leaves 2 to 5 
lines long, cuneate-oblong or broadly obovate, few toothed above, very shortly petioled; 
flowers bright blue. 

Order VITACEiE has but one representative; the well-known Calif ornia wild grape» 
Vitis Californica, Benth., which is common on the woody banks of streams. 

Order 19. SAPINDACEiE. 

Trees or shrubs, mostly with compound or lobed leaves, with unsymmetrical or irregular 
flowers; the order best characterized under its suborders. 
Under the order proper belongs 

1. iESCULUS, L. Buckeye. 

Leaves opposite, palmately 4-7-foliolate. Calyx tubular, unequally 5-toothed. Petals 
4 or 5, unequal, with claws. Stamens 5 to 7, exserted and often unequal Ovary 
3-celled; style long. Fruit a large leathery 3-valved pod. 

1. JE. Californica, Nutt. Leaflets, usually 5, smooth, oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
obtuse at base, slenderly petiolulate, serrulate, 3 to 5 inches long; flowers in a close 
finely pubescent thyrse which is 6 to 12 inches long; calyx 2-lobed, the lobes scarcely 
toothed; petals white or pale rose, half an inch long or more; stamens 5 to 7; anthers 
orange colored. Fruit pear-shaped, l^ to 2 inches long, containing, usually, one seed. 

Sub-order. ACERINE^. 

Flowers polygamous or dioecious, regular, often apetalous. Ovary 2-lobed and 2-celled, 
€ach 1-seeded cell producing a wing. Leaves opposite without stipules. 

2. ACER, Toum. Maple. 

Leaves palmately lobed. Calyx colored. Petals, usually 5. Stamens 3 to 12 inserted 
with the petals on a lobed disk. Styles 2. Fruit divaricately 2-winged. 

1. A. macrophyllum, Pursh. (Large-leafed Maple.) A tree 2 or 3 feet in 
diameter; leaves 6 to 10 inches in diameter, deeply 3-5-cleft; flowers fragrant, yellow, 
in crowded pendulous racemes; fruit densely hairy; the smooth wings l^ inches long. 

2. A. circinatum, Pursh. (Vine-Maple.) A shrub or small tree; leaves 3 to 5 
inches broad, 7-9-lobed, lobes sharply serrate; flowers in corymbs loosely 10-20-flowered, 
on slender 2-leaved branchlets; sepals red or purple, exceeding the greenish petals; fruit 



3. NEGUNDO, Mcench. 


Flowers dioecious. Calyx minute. Petals and disk none. Stamens 4 or 5. Ovary 
and fruit as in ^ffr. Trees; leaves pinnate; sterile flowers on clustered capillary pedi- 
cels, the fertile in drooping racemes. 

1. N. Californicum, Torr. & Gr. Usually a small tree; leaves 3-foliolate, villous; 
leaflets o\-ate or oblong, acute, 3 or 4 inches long, the terminal largest and 3-5-lobed or 
coarsely serrate, the lateral ones coarsely serrate; fiiiit pubescent; wings slightly 

In the figure a represents the fruit of Acer ma- 
crojyhyllnm, h the wider sj) reading samara of Acer 
circ'inatmn, and c the closer wings of Negundo 
CaU/ornkum. The first has hairy carpels; the 
second is smooth, and the last slightly liairy. 

Order ANACARDIACE^ is represented 
by tJie well-known Poison Oak or Bhus diversiloha, 
a slender, sometimes climbing, shrub, resembling 
the eastern ii/i»s toxicodendron, which is also often 
called Poison Oak, but is more commonly known 
as Poison Ivy. The eastern Sumac belongs to the 
same genus. Thex-e are three other species of 
RJ.ns in the State. The Pepper tree [Schiniis 
niolle), so commonly cidtivated as an ornamental 
shade ti"ee, belongs to this order. 

Oeder 20. LEGUMINOSiE. 

The single and simple free pistil becoming a legume in fruit, the alternate leaves Avith 
stipules, and in our genera, the papillionaceous corolla with 10 stamens, mark tliis order, 
one of t]ie largest and most important in the vegetable kingdom. 

Flowers irregular. Calyx 3-5-cleft or toothed, persistent. Corolla of 5 petals, the 
upper larger and always external, covering the lateral pair in the bud, and these cover- 
ing the lower pair, which are more or less united, forming a keel which encloses the 
stamens and pistil. Filaments 10, rarely 5, commonly united around the pistil, either 
all united or nine and the upper one free. Ovary forming a pod with a single row of 
seeds attached to one side; style usually inflexed or curved. In Cercis the ujjper petal is 
small and enclosed by the wings. In Amorpha there is but one petal. 

Suborder CaesalpineaB is mai'ked by the upper petal enclosed, and distinct stamens. 

Suborder Minioseae has regular flowers and usually many conspicuous stamens. 



Fig. A. On the left is Tlosaclia sub' 
pinnata, fcho-vving a full grown pod 
and a fl iwer as seen from above. On 
tlie right is a pod and flowers of 
Ho.^acJda Purshiana. At a is a single 
flower wi'ih its bract as seen from the 
front. The lower leaves and bracts 
are larger. 

Fig. B. A head of Trifhlium, fuca- 
A turn, with all but three of the flowers 

removed, showing the common receptacle and the involucre. 

Fig. C. An- axillary spike of Astragalus didymocarpus, with ripe fruit. Below is 
one of the pods magnified. 

Thi.s order is remarkable for the number of useful and beautiful plants 
wliicli belong to it. Pease, beans, lentils, peanuts, clover, alfalfa, etc., 
furnish food for man and domestic animals. Tropical plants of this 
order supply, among others, the following articles of commerce: Gum 
arable, gum Senegal, gum copal, dragon's-blood, indigo, logwood, brazil- 
wood, rosewood, tamarind. Many species have medical value, as senna, 
catchu, copaiba, etc. 

There are over 6,000 species of leguminous plants, mostly tropical. 
About 350 species are natives of the United States, more than half of 
w]iich are found in California. Only 4 or 5 species are common to this 
coast and the Atlantic States, and these have forms peculiar to each 
coast. Our 180 species are grouped under 14 genera, while the 150 species 
of the East (i. e., the Mississippi States and eastward to the Atlantic), 
represent 50 genera. There are about 40 species of lupine, and the same 
number belonging to the genus Astragalus, growing within the limits of 
this State. Only two kinds of the former and 4 of the latter grow east 
of the Mississippi. The latter is the largest American genus of the 


LEGUMINOS^. (pea FA:\nLY.) 

Fig. A. At a is seen a single flower of Lupinns Dou. 
glasii; b, the same with the upper and tide petals re- 
moved, showing the united pair of long-clawed, lower 
petals and the base of the stauiineal tube. 

Fig. B. a. The same flower with all the petals re- 
moved, showing the united stamens, 5 of which have 
shed the pollen and crinkled down. b. The stamens as 
they appear in abud. The t-horter sfamens of the bud 
become the longer staipens of the flower, c. Anther of 
a long stamen in a magnified, d. Anther cf a long 
stamen in b (short in a) magnified. 

ortler, the species within the United States numbering about 150, nearly all of which 
belong west of the Kocky Mountains. We have about 25 kinds of clover; only 3 or 4 
species are natives of the East. Hosackia, numbering 28 species in our whole country, 
25 of which grow here, is not represented in the East at all. On the other hand, the 
large genus Desmodium, numbering in the East 19 species, has no representative west of 
the Rocky Mountains. Pickeringia is probably not found beyond the boundary of Cali- 
fornia. The great Australian genus Acacia, numbering there nearl}' 300 species, is 
represented in Southern California by a small tree (^1. Gregjii), and in the East by an 
herb. Possibly 30 species are cultivated for shade trees. Honey Mesquit, or Algaroba 
{Prosopis julijiora) and Screw-pod Mesquit, or Tornilla {P. 'puharens), are small trees of 
Southern California. Prosopis and Acacia belong to the Suborder Mimosece. All the 
plants here described (except Cercls) belong to the Suborder Papilionaceae, which is dis- 
tinguished by flowers, like those of the pea, as before described. 

Cercis, which, by mistake, is not described in the proper place, belongs to the Sub- 
order CcesalpineiE, in which the side petals enclose the upper one and the stamens are free. 

§ 1. Stamens distinct. 

Leaves digitately 3-foliolate. Herbs; yellow flowers Thermopsis. 1 

Shrub; purple flowers Pickerinsia. 2 

Leaves unequally pinnate; shrubby; 1 petal Amorpha. 9 

§ 2. Stamens all willed into a sheath. 

Anthers of two forms; leaves digitate, more than three leaflets Lupinus. 3 

Anthers all alike; leaves pinnately 3-foliolate Psoralea. 8 

§ 3. Stamens diadelphous {2 sets, 9 and 2). 

* Leaves 3-foUolate; j^ods sinall. 

Flowers capitate. Corolla persistent Trifolium. 4 

Flowers in axillary racemes or spikes. Pod globular, wrinkled Melilotus. 5 

Flowers in axillary spikes. Pod one-seeded Psorcdea. 8 

Pod spirally coiled or reuif orm Medicago. 6 


* * Leaves unequally 2Winate; leaflets entire; no tendril. 

Flowers umbellate or solitary, axillary Hosackia. 7 

Flowers white or pinkish. Pod short, prickly Glycyrrhiza. 10 

Pods mostly inflated or nearly 2-celled Astragalus. 11 

* * * Leaves terminated hy a tendril or bristle or an imperfect leaflet. 

Style filiform, hairy around the apex Vicia. 12 

Style flattened dorsally toward the apex, hairy on the inner side, usually 

twisted half round Lathyrus. 13 


Calyx companulate, cleft to the middle. Standard roundish, shorter than the oblong 
wings, the sides reflexed; keel nearly straight, its petals somewhat united, equalling the 
wings. Perennial herbs with the aspect of Lupine; leaflets entire; stipules foliaceous; 
flowers large in long terminal racemes, with persistent bracts. 

1. T. Calilornica, Wat. Woolly -tomentose; stipules lanceolate; leaflets obovate to 
oblanceolate, an inch or two long; bracts ovate; pod hairy. 


Calyx campanulate, turbinate at the base, repandly 4-toothed. Petals eqital; standard 
orbicular, the sides reflexed; wings oblong; keel petals oblong, distinct, straight, obtuse. 
A low stout much branched spinose shrub; leaves evergreen, small, nearly sessile, 
1-3-foliolate, without stipules; flowers large, solitary, axillary, nearly sessile. 

1. P. montana, Nutt. Spreading, densely branched, 4 to 7 ft. high, silky-tomentose 
or smooth; leaflets 3 to 9 lines long; flowers from light cinnamon-red to pufj)le, 7 to 9 
lines long; stamens persistent. 

3. LUPINUS, L. Lupine. 

Calyx deeply bilabiate, bibracteolate. Standard broad, the sides reflexed; wings united 
at the ends, enclosing the incurved beaked keel. Stipules adnate to the petioles; leaflets 
entire. Flowers in terminal racemes, verticillate or scattered, bracteate. 

A large and difficult genus. 

* Annuals. 

Ovules 2; bracts persistent; flowers in whorls; leaves long petioled, approximate; stout. 

Long- villous; flowers mostly purple L. microcarpus. 15 

Smoother; flowers yellow to white L. densiflorus. 16 

Ovules several; bracts deciduous; flowers in whorls; petioles 1 to 3 times the length of 
the leaflets. 
Puberulent; leaflets broad, smoother above; bracts short L. afSnis. 8 


Villous; leaflets narrow, both sides pubescent. 

Bracts elongated; flowers rather large L. nanus. 9 

Bracts short; flowers small, narrow L. micranthus. 10 

Ovules several; bracts somewhat persistent; flowers scattered; petioles 1 to 4 times 
the length of the leaflets. 

Slender; leaflets smooth above; bracts long L. leptophyllus. 11 

Slender; leaflets linear; bracts short L. sparsiilorus. 12 

Stout; leaflets truncate; bracts short L. truncatus. 13 

Stouter; leaflets broad; bracts short; very hispid L. hirsutissimus. 14 

* * Perennials; herbaceous, tall; flowers large; ovules 8 to 12. 

Stout; long petioles; leaflets 10 to 16, very large L. polyphyllus. 4 

Stout; short petioles; leaflets 7 to 10, large L. rivularis. 5 

Slender, decumbent; short petioles; leaflets small L. littoralis. 6 

Stoutish, erect; short petioles; keel narrow, falcate L. albicaulis. 7 

* * * Perennials; shruhhy, leafy, silhj -pubescent. 

Leaflets narrowly lanceolate; flowers yellow L. arboreus. 1 

Densely silky-pubescent; flowers blue to white L. Cbaniissonis. 2 

Pubescence short, tomentose; shrubby at the base L. Douglasii. 3 

1. L. arboreus, Sims. Often 4 to 8 ft. high; sulphur-yellow, fragrant flowers, ver- 
ticillate in a loose raceme; pods large, pubescent, 10-12-seeded. 

2. L. Cliamissonis. Esch. Less shrubby, 1 to 4 ft. high; leaflets 7 to 9, cuneate 
obovate, a half to an inch long, very silky on both sides; bracts lanceolate, shorter than 
the calyx; flowers sub-verticillate, blue, violet, rarely white. A variety about San 
Francisco with long bracts. 

3. L. Douglasii, Agardh. Slightly woody at base; pubescence short, tomentose or 
silky; leaflets 7 to 9, oblanceolate to cuneate-oblong, 1 to 1^ inches long, pubescent on 
both sides; bracts linear-setaeeous, exceeding the calyx; flowers, blue or purple; calyx 
with long setaceous bractlets. 

4. L. polyphyllus, Lindl. Stout, erect, 2 to 5 ft. high, sparingly villous; stipules 
large, triangular to subulate; leaves distant, long petioled; leaflets 2 to inches long; 
racemes a foot or two long; flowers mostly scattered on long pedicels, blue, purple or 
white; bracts oblanceolate, equaling or shorter than the calyx; keel naked. 

5. L. rivularis, Dougl. Stout, erect, 2 to C ft. high, nearly smooth; stipules subu- 
late or setaceous; leaflets 7 to 10, about equaling the petioles, ^ to 5 inches long; raceme 
often 1 tc 2 ft. long; bracts setaceous, exceeding the calyx; flowers purple or rarely 
white; keel slightly ciliate. 

6. L. littoralis, Dougl. Stems slender decumbent or ascending, 1 or 2 ft. long; 
leaflets a half to an inch long, at least half as long as the petioles; flowers blue or violet, 
Wdth some yellow, in short racemes; keel ciliate; calyx large, with small bractlets. 


7. albicaulis, Dougl. Distinguished by its flowers; which are light-blue to white, 
the standard strongly reflexed, the margins cohering near the apex, naked, acute; the 
narrow keel very strongly falcate. 

8. L. afliuis, Agardh. Stem a foot high; leaflets broadly wedge-obovate, emargin- 
ate or obtuse, an inch long or more; the petioles twice longer; petals 5 lines long; the 
keel usually naked; bracts short. 

9. L. nanus, Dough Slender stem 6 inches to a foot high, villous, often branching 
from the base'; leaflets linear to oblanceolate, half to an inch long, the petioles I to 3 
times longer; bracts exceeding the calyx; petals very broad, 5 to 6 lines long, bluish- 
purple, or at flrst nearly white; the standard shorter and usually marked with purple 

10. L. micranthus, Dougl. Similar to the last, but the flowers smaller, in usually 
shorter more dense racemes; bracts shorter than the calyx; petals 2 to 3 lines lonf^, 

Var. microphyllus, Wat. The lower and more hirsute form, with leaflets but 3 to 
6 lines long. 

Var. bicolor, Wat. Flowers larger, more like L. Namis. 

Yar. trilidus, Wat. Very hairy; lower lip of the calyx 3-parted. 

11. L. leptopliyllus, Benth. Ilareiy branched, 1 or 2 ft. high, villous; leaflets 
narrowly linear on slender petioles; smooth above; bracts setaceous, much exceeding the 
calyx; petals 5 or G lines long, biuish-lilac, with a deep crimson spot upon the standard. 

12. L. sparsifxonis, Benth. Very slender, s^jaringly branched, 1 to IJ ft. high, vil- 
lous, with spreading hairs; upper leaves very small; leaflets 5 to 9, linear, ^ to 1 inch 
long; petals violet, 5 lines long, the'standard shorter; pod half an inch long. 

13. L. truncatus, Xutt. Stout, branched, 1 to 2 ft. high; leaflets linear, narrowed 
from the truncate or somewhat 3-toothed apex to the base, smooth above, | to 1^ inches 
long, nearly equaling the petiole; petals deep-purple, 4 or 5 lines long, the standard 
shorter; poil about an inch long. 

Here belongs L. Stiveui, Kello;.g. A beautiful species of the Sierra Nevada, with yellow standard 
and rohe-coloretl wings. 

14. L. hirsutissimus. Benth. A foot high or more, very hispid, with spreading 
straigl.t and viscid stinging hairs; leaflets broadly cuneate-obovate, obtuse or retuse, 
rarely acute, mucronulate; flowers in loose racemes, reddish-purple, large. 

15. L. microcarpus, Sims. Villous, with long hairs, 6 to 18 inches high; leaves 
approximate on long jjetioles; leaflets usually 9, cuneate-oblong, obtuse or emarginate 
Bmoolh above, I to 2 inches long; calyx densely villous, large; petals purple to white, 
6 or 7 lines long; the hairy 1-2-seeded pods 8 lines long. 

16. L. densiflorus, Benth. Much resembling the last; calyx smooth or finely 
pubescent ; petals yellow or ochroleucous, rarely white or pink. 

L. luteolus, Kellogg, may be found, distinguished by its more slender habit, smaller 
and fewer leaflets, and bracts exceeding the calyx. 

42 LEauMiNos^. (pea family.) 

4. TRIFOLIUM, L. Clover. 

Calyx 5 cleft with nearly equal teeth, persistent. Corolla withering, persistent; wings 
narrow, keel short obtuse. Stamens usually diadelphous. Style filiform. Pod small 
and usually inclosed in the calyx, membranaceous, indehiscent or dehiscent at the ventral 
suture, 1 to 6-seeded. Herbs with leaves palmately 3 or rarely 5-7-foliolate; stipules 
adnata to the petiole; flowers in capitate racemes, spikes or umbels, rarely few or solitary; 
peduncles axillary or only apparently terminal. 

Ail our species annual. 

§ 1. Heads not involucrate; ovules 2. 

* Heads apparently terminal; flowers sessile, not reflexed; calyx teeth plumose, filiform. 

1. T. Macrsei, Hook. & Am. Somewhat villous, erect, 6 to 12 inches high; sti- 
pules ovate to lanceolate; leaflets obovate to narrowly oblong, obtuse or retuse, serrulate, 
about half an inch long; flowers dark jpurple, 3 lines long, in dense ovate long peduncled 
heads; calyx very villous; the straight teeth as long as the petals, often tinged ^ith 
purple; pod 1 -seeded. 

Var. dichotomuni, Brew. A taller and stouter form, with larger flowers in heads 
nearly an inch long; corolla more conspicuous, tipped with white. 

* * Heads axillary, small; flowers on short pedicels, at length reflexed; calyx teeth subu- 

late; mostly smooth. 

2. T. ciliatum, Nutt. 'Erect, often 1 to 2 ft. high; leaflets similar to the last; 
corolla white or purplish, little exserted, 3 lines long; calyx tube campanulate; the 
lanceolate teeth very acute, rigid, the scarious margin rigidly ciliate. 

3. T. gracilentum, Torr, & Gr. Erect, slender, a foot high or less; stipules lanceo- 
late; leaflets cuneate oblong to ovate or obcordate, retuse, about half an inch long, 
serrulate; flowers pale rose-color or purplish on pedicels a line longer less; calyx cam- 
panulate, the subulate teeth nearly equaling the corolla. 

4. bifidum, Gr. Exactly like the last, but the leaflets narrow, the sides sparingly 
toothed or entire, and all deeply notched or cleft at the apex. 

§ 2. Heads subtended by an involucre; p)^duncles axillary; flowers sessile, not reflexed. 

* Involucre not membranaceous, deeply lobed, and the lobes laciniately and sliarply toothed; 

corolla not becoming inflated. 

5. T. involucratum, Willd. Smooth; stems ascending, often a span high or more; 
leaflets mostly oblanceolate and acute at each end, a half to an inch long; flowers half an 
inch long, in close heads, purple or rose- colored; the narrow calyx teeth all entire; ovules 
mostly 5 or 6. 

Var. heterodon, Wat. Heads larger and leaflets broader; some of the calyx teeth 
setaciously cleft. 

G. tridentatum, Lindl. Smooth or glandular-puberulent, slender and usually erect. 

LEGmnNOS^. (pea family.) 43 

a half to two feet higli; leaflets linear to narrowly lanceolate, sharply serrate; heads 
rather large, the flowers G to 8 lines long, purple, often tipped Avith white; calyx strongly 
nerved; the rigid teeth usually shorter than the tuhe, abruptly narrowed into the spinu- 
lose apex, often with a stout tooth on each side; ovules usually 2. 

Yar. obtusiflorum, Wat. Stouter and often glandular-puberulent, Vvith broader 
leaflets and larger flowers; calyx teeth entire. 

7. T. pauciflorum, Nutt, Smooth, very slender; stems ascending or decumbent; 
leaflets obovate to oblanceolate or sometimes linear, half an inch long or less, serrulate; 
heads few flowered; involucre small; flowers 3 or 4 lines long, not much exceeding the 
calyx; deep purple to light rose-colored; calyx teeth subulate, entire; pod 2-seeded. 

* * Involucre membranaceous, at least at the base, less deeply lobed; corolla not inflated. 

8. T. mioroceplialum, Pursh. Villous, with soft hairs, slender, erect or decum- 
bent; stems often a foot or two long; leaflets oblanceolate to obovate, usually retuse, 
serrulate; heads small, dense; involucre about 9-lobed, the lobes acuminate 3-nerved, 
entire ; calyx hairy, nearly equaling the white or light rose-colored corolla; ovules 2; 
pod 1 -seeded. 

9. T. niicrodon, Hook & Am. Resembling the last; involucre broader, nearly 
inclosing the head; its lobes about 3-toothed; calyx smooth. 

* * * Standard becoming conspicuously inflated and inclosing the rest of the flower; invo- 
lucre nearly obsolete in No. 12. ' 

10. T. barbigerum, Torr. Somewhat pubescent; stems rather stout, decumbent 
or ascending, a span high or less; stipules scarious; involucre as broad as the heads, 
shortly lobed; calyx-tube short, membranaceous; its teeth setaciously awned, plumose, 
the lower usually exceeding the purple corolla, sometimes 3-parted; pod 2-seeded. 

Var. Andrevrsii, Gr. A stout villous form, the heads sometimes an inch broad; 
calyx teeth very long. 

11. T. fucatum, Lindl. Smooth; stems stout and succulent, a foot or two high; 
stipules large and scarious, usually very broad and entire; leaflets obovate, ^ to IJ inches 
long; heads large; involucre broad, deeply cleft; flowers often an inch long, pale rose- 
colored or purplish; 2-6-seeded. 

12. T. depauperatum, Desv. Smooth, low, slender; heads only 3-10-flowered; 
involucre scarcely more than a scarious ring. 

13. T. amplectans, Torr & Gr. Like the last; the involucre larger. Probably 
only a variety. 

5. MELILOTUS, Toum. Sweet Clover. 

Flowers as in Trifolium, except that the petals are free from the stamens and decidu- 
ous. Pod 2-seeded. 

1. M. parviflora. Desf. Annual, smooth, erect, often 2 or 3 ft. high; leaflets 


mostly cuneate, oblong, obtuse, denticulate, an inch long or less; flowers yellow, a line 
long, in slender axillary pedunculate racemes; pedicels a line long. 


Characters nearly as the last; style subulate; pod compressed, falcate, incurved or 
spirally coiled. 

1. M. sativa, L. (Lucern, Alfalfa.) Stems erect, 1 to 4 ft. high; from a deep 
perennial root, smooth; leaflets cuneate-oblong or oblanceolate, toothed above; flowers 3 
or 4 lines long, racemed; pods numerous, spirally twisted, veined, smooth. 

2. M. denticulata, Willd. Bur-Clover. Annual, nearly smooth, prostrate or 
ascendino-; leaflets cuneate-obovate or obcordate, toothed above; flowers small, yellow, 
usually 3 to 8 in an axillary cluster; pods spiral, armed with a double row of hooked 

3. M, lupulina, L. Pubescent, jarocumbent; flowers very small, yellow, in short 
spikes; pods smooth, reniform, 1-seeded. 

7. HOSACKIA. Douglas. 

Calyx teeth nearly equal, usually shorter than the tube. Petals free from the stamens, 
nearly equal; standard ovate or roundish, the claw often remote from the others; wings 
obovate or oblong; keel somewhat incurved. Style incurved. Pod linear, sessile, several- 
seeded, partitioned between the seeds. Herbaceous or rarely sufi'rutescent ; loaves 

pinnate, 2-many-foliolate; stipules minute and gland-like, rarely scarious or foliaceous; 
flowers yellow or reddish, in axillary sessile or pedunculate umbels. 

The flowers usually change to reddish or reddish-brown in drying. Matured pods are 
necessary for the determination of species. 

§ 1. Pod shortly acute, linear and many-seeded, straight^ smooth; seeds suborhiadar; 

flowers and fruit not reflexed; peduncles long; keel broad above mostly obtuse. 

Stipules large, foliaceous; villous, viscid H. stipularis. 1 

Stipules scarious; smooth. 

Bract small or none; wings usually white H. bicolor. 2 

Bract 1-3-foliolate, at the umbel; keel and wings purplish H. gracilis. 3 

Stipules reduced to blackish glands. 

Appressed-pubescent; tall, stout; pod long, smooth H. grandiflora. 4 

Flowers very small, solitary H. parvillora. 5 

§ 2. Pod shortly acute, 3-7-seeded, straight; flowers small, mostly solitary; keel acute; 

stipules gland-like; villous. 
Blade of the standard cordate; leaflets 3 to 5; nearly smooth H, parviflora. 5 


Flowers peduncled; corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx; leaves nearly 

sessile, 1-3-f oliolate H. Purshiana. 6 

Flowers nearly sessile, not bracteate; corolla larger; leaves petioled, 3-5-f oliolate; low. 

Calyx-teeth about equaling the tube, pod 5-seeded H. subpinnata. 7 

Teeth much longer than the tube; pod 2^-seeded H. brachycarpa. 8 

§ 3. Pod long -attenuate tipward, incurved, ptihescent; stipides gland-like; leaflets 3 to 7; 
seeds 1 or 2; "peduncles short or none; flowers and fruit reflexed. 

Somewhat woody; nearly smooth; stems angled; leaflets mostly 3, oblong to linear. 

Umbels sessile; teeth narrow, erect .glabra, 9 

Peduncles short or nearly wanting; teeth usually recurved H. cytisoides. 10 

Peduncles shorter; teeth short and blunt H. juncea. 11 

Very silky-pubescent or tomentose; stems herbaceous: pod pubescent, short; umbels 
on short peduncles. 

Very pubescent throughout; flowers 3 or 4 lines long H. tomentosa. 12 

Less pubescent; stem smooth; flowers smaller H. Heermanni. 13 

1. H. stipularis, Benth. Eather tall, stout, two feet high or more, glandular; leaf- 
lets 15 to 21, obovate oblong, acute and mucronate, a half to an inch long; stipules large 
ovate; often fragrant. 

2. H. bicolor, Dougl. Smooth, erect and stout; leaflets 5 to 9, obovate or oblcng, a 
half to an inch long; stipules rather large; peduncles longer than the leaves, 3-7-flowered, 
naked or sometimes with a small 1-3-foliolate bract at the summit; flowers nearly sessile 
yellow, the wings often white; pod slender nearly 2 inches long. 

3. H. gracilis, Benth. Much like the last; usually low and slender, the weak stems 
a span high or more; umbel with a petioled 1-3-foliolate bract; flowers yellow, keel and 
wings purplish. 

4. H. graudiflora, Benth. Stout, 1 to 5 ft. high, more or less appressed silky- 
pubescent; leaflets 5 to 7 on an elongated rachis, 6 to 9 lines long; peduncles elongated; 
Umbel 3-8-flowered, usually subtended by a single leaflet; flowers nearly sessile, 6 to 11 
lines long, yellowish or greenish white, often tinged with purple, pod slender, smooth. 

5. H. parviflora, Benth. Smooth or nearly so, stems slender, ascending, a span 
high or less; leaflets 3 to 5, obovate and very small to narrowly oblong and 6 to 8 lines 
long; bract 1-3-foliolate; flowers about 2 lines long, yellow. 

H. Purshiana, Benth. Silky-villous, rarely smooth, often a foot high or more; 
leaflets varying from ovate to lanceolate, 3 to 9 lines long; peduncles usually exceeding 
the leaves; the solitary flowers 2 or 3 lines long. 

7. H. subpinnata, Torr. & Gr. Villous or smooth, decumbent, a span high or less, 
leaflets half an inch long or less; flowers 3 or 4 lines long; pod linear oblong, about 


8. H. brachycarpa, Benth. Eesembling the last; softly villousj pod villous, 

9. H. glabra, Torr. Very nearly smooth; steins woody at base, 2 to 8 ft. long, 
erect or decumbent; leaflets oblong to linear-oblong, 3 to 6 lines long; umbels numerous, 
Bessile; flowers 3 or 4 lines long; seeds 2. 

10. H. cytisoides, Benth. Resembling the last; peduncles equaling or exceeding 
the leaves, or sometimes very short, usually with a 1-3-foliolate bract at the top; calyx- 
teeth attenuate, mostly recurved. 

11. H. juncea, Benth. Somewhat shrubby, erect; leaflets obovate to oblong, 2 to 
4 lines long; umbels on very short peduncles or sessile; flowers about 3 lines long; calyx 
2 lines long or less; teeth short and blunt. 

12. H. tomentosa. Hook & Am. Very pubescent, weak and flexuose, prostrate or 
ascending, a foot or more long; leaflets 5 to 7, cuneate-oblong to obovate, acute, 3 to 6 
lines long; umbels on short bracteolate peduncles, or the uppermost sessile; flowers 3 or 4 
lines long; alyx half as long or more, very villous. 

13. H. Heermannii, Durand & Hilgard. Less pubescent, much branched and 
si3reading; leaflets smaller; flowers smaller. 


Calyx lobes nearly equal, or the lower one longer; the two upper often connate. Keel 
broad and obtuse above, united with the wings. Stamens diadelphous or monadelphous. 
Pod ovate, indehiscent, 1 -seeded, thick, sessile. Perennial herbs punctate with dark 
glandular dots. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate. Stipules free. 

* Stem.s prostrate, creeping; leaves orbicular. 

1. P. orbicularis, Lindl. Petioles G to 12 inches long; the leaflets 2 to 4 inches 
across, slightly cuneate at the base; peduncles equaling or exceeding the leaves, bearing 
a close villous spike of large flowers; the lower tooth of the calyx much the longest and 
about equaling the purplish corolla; stamens diadelphous. 

* * Stems erect. 

2. P. strobilina. Hook & Am. Two or three feet high; petioles 3 or 4 inches 
long; leaflets rombic ovate, softly pubescent beneath, about 2 inches long; stipules large, 
membranaceous; flowers in short oblong s^Dikes, smaller than the last; stamens monadel- 

3. P. macrostachya, D C. Three to even twelve feet high; leaflets ovate-lance* 
olate, an inch or two long or more; peduncles much exceeding the leaves; spikes cyliu' 
drical, silky villous, the hairs often blackish; the lower tooth of the calyx but little the 
longest, scarcely equaling the purple petals; tenth stamen nearly free. 

4. P. physodes, Dougl. A foot or two high, nearly smooth, slender; leaflets 


ovate, mostly acute, about an inch long ; the white or purplish flowers in short, closa 
racemes; calyx at length inflated; stamens monadelphous. 


Calyx obconical, nearly equally 5-toothed; wings and keel wanting; the standard erect, 
folded together. Stamens slightly united at the base, exserted. Pod 1-2-seeded. Shrubs, 
glandular-punctate; the unequally pinnate leaves with the leaflets stipellate; flowers 
purple or violet in dense clustered terminal spikes. 

I. A. Calif ornica, Nutt. Three to eight feet high, puberulent; leaflets 5 to 7 
pairs, oblong-elliptical, obtuse, mucronulate, an inch long; spikes 1 to 6 inches long. 

10. GLYCYRRHIZA, L. Liquorice. 

Flowers nearly as in Astra<jalus. Erect perennial herbs, glandular viscid; leaves une- 
qually pinnate; stipules deciduous; flowers in dense axillary pedunculate spikes; root 
large and sweet. 

1. G. lepidota, Nutt., var. glutmosa,Wat. Two or three feet high; flowers yellow- 
ish white or pinkish; the short peduncles covered with stout viscid hairs. Eare; on 
water courses. 

10. ASTRAGALUS, Toum. Eattle-weed. 

Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla and its slender clawed petals usually narrow; keel obtuse. 
Stamens diadelphous. Legume very various, commonly turgid or inflated, one or both 
sutures usually projecting inward, frequently so much as to divide the cell into two. 
Seeds few or many on slender stalks, generally small for the size of the pod. Herbs, or 
a few woody at the base; with unequally pinnate leaves, and small flowers, chiefly in 
simple spikes or racemes from the axils. 

A vast genus of five or six hundred species; about fifty on the Pacific coast. The fruit 
is needed for the determination of the species. 

* Root annual; pod not inflated, 2 -celled. 

Pod wrinkled, 2-lobed, 2-seeded A. didymocarpus. 1 

Pod not wrinkled, several-seeded A. tener. 2 

* * Root perennial; pod bladdery -inflated, 1-celled. 

Stipe a little exceeding the calyx; pod with pointed ends A. oxyphysus. 3 

Stipe much exceeding the calyx; pod obtuse, one-sided A. leucophyllus. 4 

Stipe, none; pod large and very bladdery, many seeded; leaflets mostly in many pairs; 
spike or raceme many flowered. 

Stipules distinct; pod rather firm walled A. Crotalariae. 5 

Stipules united; pod thin A. Menziesii. 6 

Stipules membranaceous; corolla yellowish A. Douglasii. 7 


1. A. didymo carpus, Hook. & Arn. Slender from 3 inches to a foot bigli; leaflets 
9 to 15, narrowly oblong to linear and more or less cuneate, deeply notched at the apex; 
small flowers white and violet; pod not over two lines long, short ov^al and deeply 2-lobed 

2. A. tener. Gr. A span or so in hight; leaflets similar to the last, not so deeply 
notched or entire; pod about half an inch long, 5-10-seeded; corolla 4 or 5 lines long, 
bright violet to pale and violet-tipped. 

3. A. oxyphysus, Gr. Canescent with very soft silky pubescence; stem erect, 2 
to 3 ft. high; leaflets oblong an inch or less in length; peduncles much exceeding the 
leaves; corolla greenish- white 8 lines long; bladdery pod acuminate and tapering into the 
recurved stipe which a little exceeds the calyx. 

4. A. leucophyllus, Torr. & Gr. Less canescent than the last; flowers about half 
an inch long; corolla yellowish- white; the thin pod unequal-sided, an inch and a half 
long on a filiform pubescent stipe of almost equal length. 

5. A. Crotalariae, Gr., var. virgatus, Gr. Smooth or the young parts villous; sterna 
2 or 3 ft. high, stout; stipules scarious, triangular or subulate, distinct; peduncles elon- 
gated; racemes virgate and loose, 4 to 10 inches long; the white flowers soon deflexed. 

6. A. Menziesii, Gr. Villous with wliitish hairs or soon green and almost smooth; 
stems sometimes decumbent, 1 to 4 ft. high; the lower stipules united opposite the leaf; 
inflorescence similar to the last but more dense; pod larger (an inch and a half or more 
long) and more bladdery. 

7. A. Douglasii, Gr. Cinereous-puberulent, almost smooth in age, stems ascend- 
ing, a foot or so in height; leaflets in numerous pairs; linear or linear-oblong, 4 to 9 linea 
long; spike, half to an inch long; 10-20-flowered; pod gibbous-ovoid, 1^ to 2 inches long. 

11. VICIA, Toum. Vetch. Tare. 

Calyx 5-toothed or cleft, usually unequally. Wings adherent to the middle of the 
short keel. Stamens diadelphous or nearly so. Style filiform, inflexed, tlie apex sur- 
rounded by hairs or hairy upon the back. Pod flat 2-valved, shortly stipitate. Herbs, 
with angular stems climbing by branched tendrils terminating the pinnate leaves; leaflets 
entire or toothed at the apex; stipules semi-sagittate; flowers solitary or in loose axillary 

* Perennials; flowers in pedunculate racemes. 

1. V. gigantea, Hook. Stout and tall, climbing several feet high; leaflets 10 to 15 
pairs, oblong, obtuse, mucronate, an inch or two long; stipules large; peduncles 
5-18 -flowered; corolla 6 or 7 lines long, pale purple; pod broadly oblong, 1^ inches long 
or more, smooth 3^-seeded. 

The seeds are large and edible; blackens in drying. 

2. V. Americana, Muhl. Usually rather stout, 1 to 4 ft. high, smooth: leaflets 4 
to 8 pairs, variable, linear to ovate-oblong, truncate to acute, J to 2 inches long; pedun- 

ROSACELE. (rose FAMILY.) 49 

cles 4-S-fiowered.; flowers purplish, 6 to 9 lines long; style very villous at the top; pods 
an inch long or more, 3-6-seeded. 

Var. truncata. Brewer. Somewhat pubescent; leaflets truncate and often 3-5- toothed 
at the apex. 

Var. linearis, Watson. Leaves all linear. Only the varieties are likely to be found. 

* * Slender annuals; flowers mostly solitary. 

3. V. exigua, Nutt. A span to two feet high, somewhat pubescent; leaflets about 
4 pairs, linear, acute, a half to an inch long; peduncles usually short, rarely 2-flowered; 
flowers 3 lines long, purplish; pod about G-seeded. 

4. V. sativa, L. Eather stout, somewhat pubescent; leaflets 5 or 6 pairs, obovate- 
oblong to linear, retuse, loug-mucronate; flowers nearly sessile, an inch long, violet- 
purple. — The common tare of Europe. Introduced. 


Style dorsally flattened toward the top, and usually twisted, hairy on the inner side. 
Peduncles usually equaling or exceeding the leaves and several flowered. 

* Radds of the leaves tendril hearing; pod sessile; racemes several flowered. 

1. L. venosus, MuhL, var. Calif ornicus, Watson. Very stout, several feet high; 
Btems often strongly winged; leaflets oblong-ovate, acute; flowers nearly or quite an inch 
long, purple; pod about 2 inches long. 

2. L. vestitus, Nutt. Slender, a foot to G or 10 feet high; stems not winged; 
Btipules narrow, often small; flowers pale rose-color or violet, usually 7 to 10 lines long; 
ovary pubescent. 

3. L. palustris, L. Slender, a foot or two high; stem often winged; leaflets nar- 
rowly oblong to linear, acute, an inch or two long; flowers purplish, half an inch long. 

Var. myrtifolius, Gr. Stipules broader; leaflets ovate to oblong, shorter. 

* Rachis of the leaves not tendril hearing, or rarely so; pod shortly stipulate, peduncles 

long; 2-G-flowered. 

4. L. littoralis, Endl. Densely silky -villous throughout; stems numerous, from 
creeping root-stocks, stout, decumbent or ascending, | to 2 ft. high; leaflets 1 to 3 pairs, 
with a small linear or oblong terminal one; calyx teeth nearly equal; standard bright 
purple, G to 8 lines long, exceeding the paler wings and keel; pod villous, an inch long. 

Order 21. ROSACEiE. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, with alternate leaves, usually evident stipules, mostly numer- 
ous stamens borne on the calyx; distinct free pistils from one to many, or in one sub- 

50 ROSACEA, (rose family.) 

order few and coherent with each other and adherent to the calyx forming a 2-scveral 
celled inferior ovary. 

Nearly all the cultivated fruits of the temperate zones belong to this order. 

Sub-order 1. AMYGDALE^. 

Carpels solitary, or rarely 5, becoming drupes, entirely free from the calyx, this or its 

lobes deciduous, Trees or shrubs with bark and seeds tasting and smelling like thosQ 

of the peach or cherry. Stipules few, deciduous. 

Flowers perfect; carpel solitary Prunus. 1 

Flowers not all perfect; carpels 5 Nuttallia. 2 

Sub-order 2. R03ACE-ffl Proper. 
Carpels free from the persistent calyx becoming akenes, follicles or berries. 

§ 1. Carpels few, becoming follicles; calyx open. 

Shrubs; follicles 2 to 8; flowers minute, in panicles Spiraea. 3 

Shrubs; follicles 1 to 5; flowers larger, in corymbs Neillia. 4 

§ 2. Carpels several or numerous, on a spongy receptacle, forming a compound 

herry Rubus. 5 

§ 3. Carpels one or rnany, becoming dry aJcenes. 

Shrubs; solitary, axillary apetalous flowers Cercocarpus. 6 

Herbs; carpels many, on a fleshy receptacle Fragaria. 7 

Herbs; carpels many, on a dry receptacle — 

Stamens 20 to 25 Potentilla. 8 

Stamens 10 Horkelia. 9 

Shrub : heath-like, with subulate fascicled leaves Adenostoma . 10 

§ 4. Erect shrubs; showy flowers Rosa. 11 

Sub-order 3. POME^. 
Carpels 2 to 5, inclosed in and mostly adnate to the fleshy caljrs-tube, in fruit becoming 
a berry-like pome. Trees or shrubs, wdth free stipules. 

Stamens 10, in pairs; fruit red Heteromeles. 12 

Stamens 20; fruit black Amelanchier. 13 

1. PRUNUS, Toum. Plum, Cherry, Etc. 
Calyx 5-cleft, deciduous. Petals 5, spreading. Stamens 15 to 25, inserted vnth. the 

ROSACEA. (rose family.) 51 

petals. Ovarj'- solitary, free, with t^vo pendulous ovules; style terminal. Fruit a drupe, 
with usually a long stone containing one seed. 
Deciduous; flowers white. 

Corymbose; appearing before or with the leaves P. emarginata. 1 

Racemose; appearing after the leaves P. demissa. 2 

Evergreen; leafless racemes axillary P. ilicifolia. 3 

1. P. emarginata, Walp. Four to eight feet high, with bark like the ordinary 
cherry tree, and chestnut-brown very slender branches; leaves oblong-obovate to oblan- 
ceolate, obtuse, narrowed to a short petiole; corymb 6-12-flowered, shorter than the 
leaves; flowers 4 to 6 lines broad; fruit globose, black; stone with a thick grooved ridge 
Upon one side. 

2. P. demissa. Walp. (Wild Cheery.) Slender, 2 to 12 ft. high; leaves ovate to 
oblong-ovate, abruptly acuminate, mostly rounded or somewhat cordate at the base; 
racemes 3 or 4 inches long; fruit purplish -black or red, edible but astringent. 

3. P. ilicifolia, Walp. (Evergreen Cherry.) Much branched, 8 to 12 ft. high, 
Vv^ith grayish-brown bark; leaves thick and rigid, shining above, broadly ovate to ovate- 
lanceolate, spinosely toothed; flowers small in racemes ^ to 2 inches long; fruit red or 
dark purple, half an inch or more thick. 

2. NUTTALLIA, Torr. & Gr. Oso Berry. 

Petals 5, broadly spatulate, erect. Stamens 15 in two rows, 10 inserted with the 
petals, and 5 lower down upon the disk lining the calyx-tube, filaments very short, the 
lower declined. Carpels 5, inserted on the persistent base of the calyx-tube, free, smooth. 

1. N. cerasiformis, Torr. & Gr. A shrub 2 to 15 ft. high; leaves rather broadly 
oblanceolate, short petioled; racemes of greenish white flowers, appearing with the 
branchlets from the same bud; drupes blue-black; with a slight furrow on the inner side, 
6 to 8 lines long, bitter. 

3. SPIR-EA, L. 

Calyx persistent, 5-lobed. Petals 5, rounded, nearly sessile. Stamens 20 or more, 
inserted with the petals. Carpels distinct and sessile, becoming several-seeded follicles. 

1. S. discolor, Pursh. A difiuse shrub, 4 ft. high or more with grayish brown bark, 
pubescent; leaves broadly ovate, truncate at base or cuneate into a slender j)etiole, pin- 
nately toothed or lobed, the lobes often dentate; panicle of dingy white flowers much 
branched, tomentose. 

Var. ariaefolia, Wat. Taller, 5 to 15 ft. high, leaves 2 or 3 inches long, panicle larger. 

Var. dumosa. Wat. Only 1 or 2 ft. high, leaves an inch long or less, cuneate into a 
short margined petiole. 

4. NEILLIA, Don. Kixe-Bark. 

Carpels 1 to 5, inflated and divergent; flowers large, white, in simple corymbs. 

62 ROSACEiE. (rose FAMILY.) 

1. N. opulifolia, Benth. & Hook. A shrub 3 to 10 ft. high, with slender spreading 
or recurved branches and ash-colored shreddy bark; leaves ovate to cordate, 3-lobed and 
toothed, 1 to 3 inches long. 

5. RUBUS, L. 

Calyx persistent 5-lobed. Petals 5, conspicuous. Stamens numerous. Carpels numer- 
ous, on a convex receptacle, becoming small globose 1 -seeded drupes, forming a com- 
pound berry. — Fruit edible. 

§ 1. Fruit with a hloom, separating from the receptacle when ripe. 

Leaves simple, palmately lobed; stem soft, woody Nutkanus. 1 

Leaves 3-foliolate, or on the flowering branches simple, rarely 5-foliolate; stems soft, 
woody, prickly — 

FloAvers large, red spectabilis. 2 

Flowers white leucoderniis. 3 

Stems herbaceous, trailing unarmed pedatus. 4 

§ 2. Fruit persistent, black and shining; stems prickly, Howers white ursinus. 5 

1. R. Nutkanus, Moc. (Thimble-berry.) Stems erect, 3 to 8 ft. high; older bark 
shreddy, no prickles; leaves 4 to 12 inches broad; flowers large white, rarely rose-col- 
ored, an inch or more across; fruit red, large. 

2. R. spectabilis, Pursh. (Salmon-berry. ) Stems 5 to 10 ft. high, similar to the 
last, but armed with a few prickles. Distinguished by its large red flowers and cylin- 
drical-ovoid yellow or purplish berries. 

Var. Meuziesii, Wat. Densely tomentose and silky. 

3. R. Icucodermis, Dougl. (Raspberry. ) May be known by its leaflets, white-- 
tomentose beneath, prickly stem, white flowers, and its yellowish red white-bloomed 

4. R. pedatus, Smith. Stems slender pubescent; leaflets cuneate-obovate, an inch 
or less in length; flowers white; the at length reflexed sepals exceeding the petals; berry 
of only 3 to C large red pulpy drupelets. 

5. R, ursinus, Cham. & Schl. (Blackrerry. ) Stems weak or trailing, 5 to 20 ft» 
long; friiit oblong. 


Calyx narrow, tubular, the campamxlate 5-lobed limb deciduous. Petals none. Sta- 
mens in 2 or 3 rows on the limb of the calyx. Carpels solitary. Fruit a villous akene, 
included in the enlarged calyx-tube, tailed with the elongated exserted plumose twisted 

Evergreen shrubs or trees. C. ledifolius, Nutt. is the Mountain Mahogany of 
the Sierra Nevada. The following is found in the Coast Pange. 

ROSACEA, (rose family.) 53 

1. C. parvifolius, ISTutt. A shrub 2 to 10 ft. high, or rarely a tree, branching from 
a thick base. Tails of the fruit often 4 inches long. 

7. FRAGARIA. Tourn. Steawberey. 

Calyx persistent; limb 5-toothed, mth 5 alternate bractlets. Petals white, spreading. 
Stamens in one row. Carpels numerous, smooth; styles lateral short. Keceptacle much 
enlarged in fruit, conical, scarlet, bearing the small akenes on its surface. 

1. F. Chilensis, Ehrh. Densely villous, with silky hairs; leaflets thick, smooth 
above; flowers often an inch broad; fruit ovate; akenes deeply pitted. 

2. F. Californica, Cham. & Schl. Somewhat villous; leaves thin, veiny; fruit 
Email; akenes not in pits. 


Calyx as in Fragnria. Petals yellow, rarely white. Stamens 20 to 50, marginal in 1 
to 3 rows. Carpels numerous. Akenes small, on a dry receptacle. 

1. P. glandulosa, Lindl. Perennial, erect, a foot or more high; leaves pinnate; 
leaflets 5 to 9, rounded, ovate, coarsely serrate; flowers cymose; calyx 4 to 6 lines long, 
Usually villous, with coarse hairs ; bractlets shorter than the lobes; petals not exceeding 
the calyx; stamens 25 in one row. 

2. P. Anserina, L. (Silver-weed.) White tomentose and silky-villous leaves, all 
radical, often a foot long or more; leaflets 3 to 10 pairs, with smaller ones interposed, 
oblong, sharply serrate, tomentose, at least beneath; flowers yellow, solitary, on scape- 
like peduncles. 

9. EORKELIA, Cham. & Schl. 

Petals obovate to linear, often clawed, white or pink. Stamens 10, in two rows; fila- 
ments more or less dilated; those opposite to the sepals broadest. Flowers cymose. 

* Bractlets nearly as broad as the calyx-lobes. 

1. H. Californica, Cham. & Schl. Glandular-pubescent; stems a foot high or 
more; leaflets 5 to 10 pairs, 3 to 8 lines long; calyx about equaling the spatulate petals. 

Var. sericea, Gr. Canescent throughout, with a dense, silky pubescence; leaf- 
lets larger. 

* * Bractlets much nai^rower than the calyx-lobes. 

2. H. tenuiloba, Gr. Canescently villous, a foot high; leaflets 8 to 12 pairs, deeply 
incised, 2 or 3 lines long. 

3. H. Bolanderi, Gr. Densely hoary-pubescent, cespitose, the stems 3 or 4 inches 
high, the numerous leaflets minute, with rounded lobes. 

10. ADENOSTOMA, Hook & Arn. Chasiiso. 
Calyx persistent, 5-lobed; tube obconical, 10-ribbed; lobes membranaceous, broad. 

54 ROSACEA, (rose family.) 

Petals 5, orbicular, spreading. Stamens 10 to 15, usually 2 or 3 together between the 
petals. Fruit a membranaceous akene, included in the indurated calyx-tube. Ever- 
green shrubs, somewhat resinous; flowers small, white, in terminal, racemose panicles. 

1. A. fasciciilatum. Hook & Arn, A diffusely branching shrub, 2 to 20 ft. high, 
with reddish virgate branches and grayish shreddy bark; leaves fascicled, linear subulate, 
2 to 4 lines long, usually channeled on one side, smooth. 

Alchemilla arveusis. Scop., belongs here. Its minute, greenish, apetalous flowers 
are fascicled in the axils of the small leaves and inclosed by the cleft stipules. A small 
under herb, growing on sandy hillsides. 

Acaena trilida, E,. & Pa v. Is another apetalous herb, with silky, villous leaves and 
stem rising from a woody caudex; 3 to 15 inches high. The leaves are pinnate, the leaf- 
lets i^inuately cleft into 3 to 7 segments. The greenish flowers with purple stamens are 
in a crowded terminal spike. Habitat similar to the last. 

11. ROSA. Toum. Eose. 

It is not necessary to here characterize this well-known genus. 

1. R. Californica, Cham. & Schl. Erect, 2 to 8 ft. high, sparingly armed with 
usually recurved prickles, tomentose; leaflets 2 or 3 pairs; calyx lobes tomentose, often 
glandular leafy; petals G to 9 lines long; fruit globose. 

2. R. gymnocarpa, Kutt. Slender, 1 to 4 ft, high, armed ^vith straight slender 
prickles or unarmed, smooth; leaflets 2 to 4 paii's, glandular; flowers solitary, rarely 2 or 
3, rarely an inch in diameter; calyx lobes at length deciduous; fruit small, ovate or j)ear- 

12. HETEROMELES, J. Eoemer. Photinia. 

Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, spreading. Stamens in pairs, opposite the calyx-teeth. 

Fruit red, berry-like. An ev^ergreen shrub or small tree, with coriaceous, simple, 

sharply serrate leaves. Flowers white in terminal panicles. 

1. H. arbutifolia. Poem. Leaves dark green above, lighter beneath, narrowly to 
oblong lanceolate, acute at each end, 2 to 4 inches long, on short jDetioles, slightly re vo- 
lute margins; fruit 2 or 3 lines in diameter. 

Pirus rivularis, Dough, the Oregon Crah-Aj^ple, may be found in Sonoma County. 

13. AMELANCHIER, I^Ied. Service-Berry. 

Calyx-tube campanulate; the limb 5-parted, persistent. Petals 5, oblong, ascending. 
Stamens 20, short. Carpels 3 to 5 inferior, becoming membranaceous and partially 2- 
celled; styles united below or distinct. Fruit berry like, globose. — Shrubs or small 
trees; leaves simple, serrate; flowers white, racemose; fruit purplish, edible. 

1. A. alnifolia, Xutt. A shrub 3 to 8 ft. high; leaves broadly ovate, sometimes 
cordate at the base, serrate only toward the summit, ^ to 1| inches long. 


Order CALYCANTHACE^, is represented by Cahjcantlms occidentalls, Hook. 
& Am., an erect shrub 6 to 12 ft. high, with opposite entire lanceolate leaves, 3 to 6 
inches long and large solitary livid or purplish red flowers; sepals and petals numerous, 
linear-spatulute. The common name of the Eastern species — Sweet-Scented Shrub — is 
scarcely applicable to our species. 


Herbs, shrubs, or small trees, distinguished from Hosacece by albuminous seeds; usually 
by definite stamens, not more than twice the number of the calyx-lobes; commonly by 
the want of stipules; sometimes by the leaves being opposite; and in most by the pai'tial 
or complete union of the 2 to 5 carpels into a compound ovary. Seeds usually indefinite 
or numerous. Petals and stamens on the calyx'. Styles inclined to be distinct. Only 
the II >jdrangle(& have many stamens. 

Tribe 1. SAXIFRAGES. Herbs, leaves mostly alternate and without distinct 
stipules. Styles or tips of the carpels distinct. Fruit capsular or follicular. 

* Ovary with 2 or rarely more cells, or oj as many distinct carpels. 

Stamens 10, rarely more Saxifraga. 1 

Stamens 5 Boykinia. 2 

* * Ovary 1-celled. 

Stamens 10, included Tellima. 3 

Stamens 10, exserted Tiarella. 4 

Stamens 5, and styles 2 Heuchera. 5 

Tribe 2. HYDRANGIBS. Shrubs, leaves opposite, simple, no stipules. Fruit 


A tall shrub. Large white flowers Philadelphus. 6 

Low, scarcely shrubby. Small flowers Whipplea. 7 

Tribe 3. GROSSULARIES, Shrubs, leaves alternate with stipules adnate to the 

petiole or wanting. Fruit a berry. 
Calyx- tube adnate to the ovary Ribes. 8 

1. SAXIFRAGA, L. Saxifrage. 

Calyx 5-lobed, free, or its tube coherent with the lower part of the ovary. Petals 5. 
Fruit of 2 follicles, or a 2-lobed capsule. — In our species stemless; flowers white. 

1. S. Virginiensis, Michx. Leaves thickish, oblong-ovate to spatulate-obovate, 
coarsely toothed or almost entire, an inch or two long and the margined petiole often as 
long; scape viscid pubescent, 4 to 12 inches high, at length loosely many flowered in a 
paniculate cyme; flowers, small white. 


2. S. integrifolia, Hooker. Larger; leaves shorter petioled; flowers in a thyrsiforra 
panicle; calyx lobes reflexed. 

3. S. Mertensiana, Bong. Scape and leaves from a scaly granulate bulb; leaves 
rounded and cordate on long naked jietioles; crenately or incisely lobed, the lobes often 
3-toothed at the end; 2 to 4 inches across; calyx free. 

2. BOYKINIA, Nutt. 

Calyx 5-lobed, adherent to the ovary. Petals 5, entire, closed. Stamens alternating 
with the petals. Ovary and capsf.le 2-celled. — Perennial herbs, with creeping rootstocks, 
simple leafy stems; the leaves alternate, round-reniform, jjalmately lobed and incised or 
toothed, the teeth with callous-glandular tips, and the petioles mostly with stipule-like 
appendages at the base. 

1. B. occidentalis, Torr. & Gr, Smoothish, or with some rusty hairs; a foot or 
two high; leaves thin-membranaceous, 3-7-lobed; petals white, 2 or 3 lines long. 

3. TELLIMA, K. Br. 

Calyx campanulate or turbinate, 5-lobed; the base coherent with the lower prut of the 
ovary. Petals 5, inserted in the throat or sinuses of the calyx, laciniate-pinnatifid, 
3-7-lobed, or entire. Stamens 10, short. Ovary short, 1-celled, with 2 or 3 parietal 
placentae; styles 2 or 3, very short; stigmas capitate. Capsule conical, slightly 2-3- 
beaked. — Perennials, with round-cordate and toothed or palmately divided chiefly alter- 
nate leaves, few on simple stems, their petioles with stipule-like dilations at the base, 
and the flowers in a simple terminal raceme; petals white or pinkish. 

Petals laciniate-pinnatifid T. grandiflora. 1 

Petals entire, spatulate-obovate T. Cymbalaria. 2 

Petals entire; pedicels very short T. Bolauderi. 3 

Petals obtusely 3-lobed T. heterophylla. 4 

Petals acutely 3-lobed T. affinis. 5 

1. T. grandiflora, Dougl. A foot or more high, from short stout tufted rootstocks, 
hirsute or pubescent; leaves lobed, 2 to 4 inches in diameter; flowers dull-colored. 

2. T. Cymbalaria, Gr. Stem or scape filiform, 4 to 12 inches high, bearing mostly 
a pair of opposite 3-lobed or parted leaves; radical leaves somewhat 3-5-lobed, half an 
inch across, flowers few and slender pediceled, white. 

3. T. Bolanderi, Gr. Stems a foot or two high, 1-4-leaved; radical and lower 
leaves lobed, the upper 3-5-parted; petals rarely with a small tooth on each side, white. 

4. T. heterophylla, Hook. & Arn. Stems slender, a foot or less in height 1-3- 
leaved; leaves similar to the last, but smaller; flowers fewer and smaller, sometimes 

5. T. afEnis, Gr. Pougher-pubescent; stem and leaves similar to the last; calyx 
iensely rough glandular-pubescent; jpetals 4 or 5 lines long, white or flesh-colored. 



Distinguished by the minute, slender petals, long exserted stamens, and the very une- 
qual horns of the ^-carpeled ovary. 

1. T. uniroliata, Hook. Somewhat hairy; flowering stems 4 to 15 inches high, 1-3- 
leaved; leaves thin, cordate, 3-5-lobed, crenate-toothed; flowers small, panicled. 

5. HEUCHERA, L. Alum-root. 

Calyx tube coherent with the lower half of the ovary. Petals small, entire, clawed. 
Ovary more or less 2-beaked; the beaks tapering into either filiform long, or subulate 
shorter styles. — Herbs with small, dull-colored paniculate flowers. Scarious stir)ules 
adnate or distinct. Leaves round -cordate, obtusely lobed, crenate-toothed. 

1. H. micrautlia, Dougl. Scape, or few leaved flowering stems, a foot or two 
high; leaves 2 to 4 inches in diameter; calyx acute at the base, lobes erect; styles 

2. H. pilosissima, Fisch. & Mey. Very villous-pubescent or hirsute, with viscid 
hairs; calyx rounded or obtuse at the base, the broad, short lobes incurving, densely 
hairy; styles short. 

6. PHILADELPHUS, L. Mock Orange. 

Calyx adhering to the ovary nearly or quite to the summit, persistent. Petals 4 or 5, 
large, obovate or roundish. Stamens 20 to 40. Styles 3 to 5, united at the base or 
nearly to the top, — Shrubs with opposite leaves and showy white flowers. 

1. P. GordoiiJanus, Lindl. Six to twelve feet high; leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, 
mostly coarsly-serrate, 2 to 4 inches long; flowers in loose clusters, which are leafy at the 
base; petals frequently an inch long. 

7. WHIPPLE A, Torr. 

Calyx lobes thin, white or whitish. Petals ovate or oblong. Ovary 3 to 5-celled. 
Styles distinct, subulate. — Small, trailing or difiiise, ours half shrubby plants, with 
opposite, short petioled, 3-ribbed leaves, no stipules and small white cymose-clustered 
flowers; peduncles naked, terminal. 

1. W. modesta, Torr. Leaves membranaceous, ovate or oval, obtusely few-toothed 
or entire, an inch or less long. Flower 2 lines long, clusters close-flowered, fragrant. 

8. RIBES, L. 

Calyx tube adnate to the globose ovary and extended beyond it, the limb commonly 
petaloid. Petals erect, mostly smaller than the calyx-lobes. Stamens alternate with 
the petals. Berry crowned by the withered remains of the flower. — Shrubs with 
alternate palmately lobed leaves. 


§ 1. Thorny under the fascicles. Gooseberries. 

Berry prickly R. Menziesii. Z 

Berry smooth R. divaricatum. 2 

Berry dry; flowers large, bright-red R. ' speciosum. 3 

§ 2. Thornless and prickless. Currants. 

Flowers rose-red to white R. sanguineum. 4 

Flowers golden yellow R. aureum. 5 

1. R. Menziesii, Pursh. Calyx about half an inch long, purplish red; its oblong 
lobes spreading or recurved, longer than the funnelform tube, hardly longer than the 
stamens which surpass the whitish petals; berry thickly covered with prickles. 

2. R. divaricatum, Dougl. Flowers one-third of an inch long; calyx livid-pur- 
plish or greenish- white; its lobes about twice as long as the fan-shaped white j)etals, 
these only one-third as long as the stamens and villous 2-cleft style. 

3. R. speciosum, Pursh. Very tall; flowers 2 to 5 on a bristlj^-glandular peduncle, 
drooping, fuchsia-like, almost an inch long and stamens as much longer. 

4. R. sanguineum, Pursh. Eacemes droojping, many flowered; calyx prolonged 
beyond the ovary into a campanulate tube 2 or 3 lines long, about equaling the lobes. — 
Buns into indefinite varieties. 

5. R. aureum, Pursh. Flowers golden yellow, spicy-fragrant, in 5-10-flowered,. 
leafy-bracted racemes. 

Order 23. CRASSULACEiE. 

Succulent or fleshy plants, with completely symmetrical as well as regular flowers. 

Parts of the flower each 4 to 7; stamens twice as many. Petals distinct. . . .Sedum. 1 
Petals somewhat united Cotyledon. 2 

1. SEDUM, L. Stone-Crop. 

Sepals 4 or 5 united at the base. Carpels distinct or rarely connate at the base. 

1. S. spatliulifolium. Hook. Stems ascending from a branched rooting caudex, 4 
to 6 inches high; leaves obovate or spatulate, flat, 6 to 10 lines long; flowers secund in 
a forked cyme, nearly sessile, 3 lines long; petals yellow, lanceolate acute. 


Petals united into a 5-lobed pitcher-shaped or cylindrical corolla. Stamens 10, in- 
serted on the corolla-tube. Carpels usually distinct. 

1. C. farinosa, Benth. & Hook. Acaulescent, more or less mealy-pulverulent; 
rosulate leaves lanceolate, acuminate, the larger ones 2 to 4 inches long; flowering 
branches a span high with scattered broadly ovate to lanceolate clasping leaves. Flowers 


2. C. casspitosa, Haw worth. Similar to the last; smooth glaucous-green; flowering 
branches 6 to 12 inches high, with broadly triangular-ovate clasping leaves. The most 
common species. 

TILL^A MINIMA, Miers., a small herb 1 to 3 inches high with clusters of minute white flow- 
ers in the axils of the opposite leaves is a common under-herb in moist places; as is also T.angusti- 
folia, Nutt., only an inch high with solitary flowers. 

Order LYTHRACB^ is represented by Lythrum alatum, Pursh., var. llneari/oUum, 
Gr. An herb a foot or two high with angled stemes and small deep purple 6-petaled 
flowers solitary in the axils of the entire sessile leaves. 

Ordeb 24. ONAGRACEiE. 

Herbs (snnibby exotics), with the parts of the flowers in fours, the calyx tube adnate 
to the ovary, the petals borne on its throat, and the stamens as many or twice as many. 
Style always single. 

Aquatic stems creeping Jussiaea. 1 

Flowers scarlet, fuchsia-like Zauschneria. 2 

Flowers small, purplish, leaves mostly opposite Epilobium. 3 

Anthers attached near the center CEnothera. 4 

Flowers purple, calyx lobes reflexed Godetia. 5 

Petals clawed, calyx-tube short Clarkia. 6 

Petals clawed, calyx-tube filiform Eucharidium. 7 

Flowers purple in leafy spikes Boisduvalia. 8 

Flowers minute, white, parts in twos Circaea. 9 

1. JUSSIiEA, L. 

The 4 to 6 herbaceous lobes of the calyx j^ersistent. Petals as many, obovate, spread- 
ing, yellow. Stamens twice as many. Capsule clavate. 

1. J. repens, L., Var. Californica, Wat. Characterized sufficiently by its 
creeping stems and its solitary axillary flowers nearly an inch in diameter. 


Tube of the calyx much prolonged beyond the linear ovary, colored, the 4-lobed 
limb with 8 small deciduous scales, 4 erect and 4 deflexed. Stamens 8, exserted. 

1. Z. Californica, Presl. The scarlet fuchsia-like flowers over an inch long cannot 
be mistaken. 

3. EPILOBIUM, L. Willow-herb. 

The seeds tufted with silky hairs in linear 4-sided, 4-valved capsules best mark this 
difficult genus. 



Calyx tube more or less prolonged beyond the ovary; segments reflexed. Petals 4; in 
our species yellow. Stamens 8, equal, or those opposite to the petals shorter. Style 
filiform; stigma 4-lobed or capitate. (See Addenda.) 

* Acaulescent. Calyx-tuhe filiform above the under-gi^oiind ovary. 

Leaves ovate to lanceolate CB. ovata. 1 

Leaves linear CB. graciliflora. 2 

* * Caulescent. Calyx-tube obconic; capsule sessile, linear. 

Leaves thick; flowers small; capsule thick CG. cheiranthifolia. 3 

Flowers large; petals with a spot at the base G. bistorta. 4 

Flowers small; capsule contorted CB. raicrantha. 5 

Slender, leajy annuals; leaves linear; flowers small; capsule narrowly linear. 

Flowers rarely reddening CB. dentata. 6 

Flowers usually reddening CE. strigulosa. 7 

1. CB. ovata, Nutt. The radical leaves 4 to 6 inches long; calyx-tube scape-like, 
1 to 4 inches long. 

2. CEj. graciliflora, Hook & Am. Canescently villous; calyx-tube equaling the 
leaves, G to 13 lines long; petals obcordate, 3 to 5 lines long, smaller than the last. 

3. CB. cheiranthifolia, Horn. Canescently pubescent; stems decumbent or ascend- 
ing, 2 ft. long or more; leaves oblong or narrowly oblanceolate, sometimes broadly ovate 
or cordate, ^ to 2^ inches long, mostly entire, the lower petioled, the upper often clasp- 
ing; ovary and calyx villous; flowers 2 to 5 lines in diameter; capsule 4 to 8 lines long. 
Near the sea on drifting sands. 

4.' CEj. bistorta, Nutt. Less common than the last; distinguished by its petals, 4 
to G lines long, usually with a brown spot. 

5. CB. micrantha, Horn. A variable species distinguished from the last by its 
flowers, only 2 to 4 lines in diameter, with the petals sometimes 3-lobed; and by the con- 
torted slender capsules, 8 to 18 lines long. 

6. CB. dentata, Cav. A span high or less; leaves linear, sessile, denticulate, 6 to 
18 lines long; petals rounded, 2 to 4 lines long; capsule slender, attenuate, an inch long 
or more. 

7. CB. strigulosa, Torr. & Gr. Like the last; the capsule obtuse, scarcely attenu- 
ate. More common than the last. , 

CEnothera, biennis, L., the Evening Primrose, if found, may be known by its tall, 
erect stem and large flowers. 


5. GODETIA, Spach. 
Distinguished from Qlnotliera by the anthers not versatile, and flowers not yellow. 

* Flowers in a strict, mostly compact spike; capsule ovate to oblong; stems leafy. 

Petals deep purple G. purpurea. 1 

Petals rose-colored with a spot G. lepida. 2 

Petals bluish-purple, 3 to 5 lines long G. albescens. 3 

* * Flowers in usually a loose spike or raceme, mostly nodding in the bud; capsule linear; 

leaves distant. 
■i- Capsule sessile; stigma-lobes purplish. 

Ovary and capsule short, villous, 2-costate G. quadrivulnera. 4 

Capsule puberulent, not costate G. tenella. 5 

-J- -i- Capsule pedicellate, not costate, stigma-lobes mostly yellow G. amcsua. 6 

Small, hispid G. hispidula. 7 

Small, petals 2-lobed G. biloba. 8 

1. G. purpurea, Wat. Mostly very leafy, a foot or two high, puberulent, the 
ovary densely villous; leaves oblong to oblong-oblanceolate, an inch or two long, entire, 
sessile; flowers mostly in a leafy terminal cluster; petals 4 to G lines long; style shorter 
than the stamens; stigma-lobes very short, purple; capsule G to 9 lines long, not costate. 

2. G. lepida, Lindl. Canescently puberulent, the stem usually white and shining. 
Easily distinguished by its flowers; the rose-colored petals with a dark sj^ot near the top 
9 to 12 lines long. 

3. G. albescens, Lindl. Smaller leaves than the last, and much smaller almost 
blue flowers. Hare. 

4. G. quadrivulnera, Spach. Puberulent, ovary and capsule more or less villous; 
stems usually slender, a foot or two high; leaves linear-lanceolate or linear, sessile or 
attenuate to a short petiole, entire or slightly denticulate, an inch or more long; petals 
deep-purple or purplish, 3 to G lines long; stigma-lobes short, purple. 

5. G. tenella, Wat. Chiefly distinguished from the last by the capsule, which is 
8 to 14 lines long, with nearly flat sides. 

G. G. amcsna, Lilja. Petals and purple anthers, frequently rather villous, varying 
from nearly whits to rose-color, with more or less of purple, 8 to 15 lines long; capsule 
attenuate at each end. 

7- G. hispidula, Wat. Is about a span high, often but 1 -flowered; leaves narrowly 
linear; purple petals, G to 12 lines long. 

8. G. bHoba, Wat. Petals 2-lobed. Foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada. 

6. CLARKIA, Pursh. 
Petals 4, with claws, entire, purple. Stamens 8. Stigma with 4, at length spreading, 


Boraetimes unequal lobes. Capsule linear, 4-anglecl. Annuals, vnth. erect brittle stems 
and alternate leaves on short petioles. 

1. C. elegans, Dougl. Stems from 6 inches to 6 feet high; leaves broadly ovate to 
linear, repandly toothed; petals rhomboidal; stigma-lobes equal; capsule nearly sessile. 

2. C. rliomboidea, Dougl. Is smaller; leaves petioled; claws of the petals 
toothed; capsule short, pediceled. 

7. EUCHARIDIUM, Fisch. & Mey. 

Distinguished from Clarhia by the filiform calyx tube prolonged above the ovary, and 
stamens only 4. 

1. E. concinnum, Fisch. & Mey. Closely resembles Clarhia rliomboidea in habit 
and foliage, calyx- tube an inch long; petals 3-lobed. Common. 

8. BOISDUVALIA, Spach. . 

Petals 4, obovate-cuniform, sessile, 2-lobed, purple to white. Anthers not versatile. — 
Leaves alternate, simple, sessile; the small flowers in leafy spikes; our species villous. 

1. B. densiflora, Wat. Canescent; 6 inches to 2 ft. high; leaves lanceolate to 
linear-lanceolate, mostly denticulate, 1 to 3 inches long; the floral leaves usually short 
and broad ; flowers in usually a close terminal leafy spike or numerous short lateral spike- 
lets; petals 3 to 6 lines long. 

2. B. Torreyi, Wat. Rather slender, a span or two high; leaves 4 to 9 lines long; 
the floral leaves scarcely smaller; flowers very small. 

9. Circaea, Pacifica, Asch. & Magn. In moist woods. Distinguished by its small 
indehiscent pear-shaped fruit covered with bristles and thin ovate ojpposite leaves. 

Order 25. LOASACEiE. 

Herbaceous plants with either stinging or jointed and rough-barbed hairs; no stipules, 
calyx tube adnata to the 1-celled ovary. Stamens usually very numerous. 


Calyx cylindrical to ovoid; the persistent limb 5-toothed. Petals 5 or 10. Stamens 
numerous, inserted below the petals on the throat of the calyx; filaments free or in clus- 
ters opposite the petals, filiform or the outer petaloid. Style 3-cleft, the lobes often 
twisted. — The leaves are alternate, mostly coarsely-toothed or pinnatifid; flowers white 
to yellow or orange. (See Addenda.) 

1. M. albicaulis, Dougl. Slender, 6 to 12 inches high or more; leaves linear-lance- 
olate, pinnatifid with numerous narrow lobes, the upper leaves broader and often lobed 

CORNACE.E. (dogwood FAMILY.) 63 

at the base only; flowers near the ends of the branches; petals 5, spatulate or obovate 2 
to 3 lines long; capsule 6 to 9 lines long. 

2. M. gracilenta, Torr. & Gr. Stems similar to the last; petals obovate, abruptly 
acuminate, an inch long; capsule 12 to 15 lines long. 

3. M. laevicaulis, Torr. & Gr. Stout 2 or 3 ft. high; leaves lanceolate 2 to 8 inches 
long; flowers sessile on short branches, very large, light yellow; petals acute, 2 to 2^ 
inches long. 

Order CUCURBTTACB^ is represented by Megarrhiza Marah, Wat. (Big- 
Root). The cucumber-like vines, often 10 or even 30 ft. long; the sterile flowers white 
in racemes 4 to 12 inches long; the fruit ovate oblong, more or less covered with weak 
spines inclosing several n«t-like seeds. M. Californica, Torr., has stiffer spines on 
smaller fruit; the fertile flowers without abortive stamens. 

Order FICOIDE-Sj is represented by Mesembryantliemum aequilaterale. Haw., 
a very fleshy herb, with opposite three sided leaves 1 to 3 inches long and solitary red 
flowers; the petals numerous, linear. On the sea shore Mollugo verticellata, L., will 
scarcely be noticed. 

Order 26. UMBELLIFERiE. 

• Herbs with small flowers in umbels, stamens and petals 5, borne on a 2-celled ovary 
which in fruit splits into a pair of dry usually flat indehiscent carpels. Since the generic 
distinctions depend upon characters of fruit and seed difficult of determination, the plants 
of this order are not here described. 

Order ARALIACBJEl is represented by Aralia Californica, Wat. (Spikenard.) 
Grows in woods, along streams. Herbaceous stems, 8 to 10 ft. high; the white flowers 
in panicles a foot or two long and more. 

Order 27. CORNACEiE. 

Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, with simple entire mainly opposite leaves, no stipules, 
and flowers in cymes, capitate clusters or spikes; the petals and stamens 4, epigynous;, 
calyx adnate to the 1-2-celled ovary, which becomes a drupe or berry. 

1. CORNUS, L. 

Flowers perfect. Calyx minutely 4-toothed. Petals 4, oblong or ovate. Stamens 4, 
with slender filaments. Style slender; stigma capitate or truncate. Fruit ovoid or 

* Flowers greenish, in a close head, surrounded by an involucre of 4 to 6 large, white, petal- 
like bracts. 

1. C. Nuttallii, Audubon. Usually a small tree; the involucre of yellowish or 


■tvhite, often reddish bracts, 1^ to 3 inches long, abruptly acute. Fruit a large cluster of 
crimson berries. 

2. C. Canadensis, L. Stem simple, herbaceous, 3 to 8 inches high; leaves in a 
whorl of G at the top, and a pair below; the 4 bracts 4 to 8 lines long. 

* * Flowers white or cream colored, cyTnose, not involucrate. 

3. C. Californica, C. A. Meyer. A shrub, G to 15 ft. high, with smooth, purplish 
branches; leaves ovate acute, obtuse at the base, 2 to 4 inches long, lighter colored 
beneath, with loose, silky hairs; flowers in small, dense, round-topped cymes. 

4. C glabrata, Benth. Bark gray; leaves oblocg to narrowly ovate, acute at each 
end, alike green on both sides; flowers in open, flat cymes. 

GARRY A ELLIPTIC A, Dougl. and G, J'rcmoTzta, Torr. , dioecious shrubs, belong here. The ever- 
green coriaceous leaves are opposite on the 4-angled braDchlet>, the bhort petioles connate; the ap^ ta- 
lo.s floweis in axillary ameuts. Leaves of the former elliptical, undulate margins; the staminate 
amenta long; leaves of the latter ovate to oblong, not iindulate, lighter green. 



In our species shrubs with opposite leaves, no stipules, the calyx adherent to the 
2-5-celled ovary, the stamens as many as the lobes of the rotate or tubular corolla. 

Corolla rotate, regularly 5-lobed; white Sambucus. 1 

Corolla bell-shaped, regularly 4-5-lobed, pinkish Symplioricarpus. 2 

Corolla tubular, irregular Lonicera. 3 

1. SAMBUCUS, Toum. Elder. 

Calyx teeth corolla lobes and stamens 5. Stigmas 3 to 5. Berries really drupes. 

Shrubs whose rank shoots are filled with a j)ith, half an inch in diameter. Leaves 
pinnately 5- 11-foliolate. Flowers small, in large compound cymes. 

1. G. glauca, Nutt. Cyme flat, S-j^arted; fruit black, with a white bloom. 

2. S. racemosa, L. Cyme ovate or pear-shaped; fruit bright red. E,aro. 


Calyx 5-toothed, occasionally 4-toothed, persistent. Corolla nearly or quite regular, 
from open campanulate to salver-form, 5-4-lobed. Stamens as many as the lobes of the 
corolla, inserted on its throat. Fruit globular, white. — Low shrubs, with oval or ob- 

KUBIACEiE. (madder FAIMILY.) G5 

long leaves, mostly entire; and 2-bracteolate flowers in axillary and terminal clusters; 
rarely solitary. 
, 1. S. racemosus, Mich. Erect, smooth; corolla very villous within. 

2. S. mollis, Nutt. Low, diffuse or decumbent, softly pubescent; leaves small; 
corolla slightly villous. 

2. LONICERA, L. Honeysuckle. 

Corolla tubular, the tube commonly gibbous at the base and irregularly lobed. Stamens 
5 inserted on the tube of the corolla. Style filiform; stigma capitate. 

1. L. hispidula, Dougl. Stems disposed to twine; leaves mostly oval, the lower 
short petioled, the upper pairs commonly connate; foliaceous stipule-like appendages 
between the leaves common; flowers sessile in a terminal head, pink or yellowish; berries 
red or orange. Variable. 

2. L. iiivolucrata, Banks. An erect shrub, 4 to 10 ft. high; leaves ovate-oblong 
to broadly lanceolate, short-petioled; flowers a jjair on axillary peduncles; below them a 
conspicuous involucre of 4 bracts, tinged witli red or yellow; berries purple-black. 

Order 29. RUBIACEiE. 

Known by having opposite entire leaves with intervening stipules, or whorled leaves 
without stipules, along with an inferior ovary and regular 4-5-merous flowers; the teeth 
of the calyx sometimes wanting. Stamens alternate with the lobes of the corolla and 
borne on its tube, distinct. 

1. CEPHALANTHUS, L. Button-bush. 

Flowers in a dense spherical head. Calyx inversely pyramidal, 4-5-toothed. CoroUa 
with a long, slender tube and a small 4-clef t limb. Stamens 4, borne on the throat of the 
corolla, short. Style very long and slender. — Shrub with opposite leaves and stipules, 
or in whorls of 3 or 4. Peduncles axillary; flowers white. 

1. C. occidentalis, L. Leaves ovate or lanceolate, 3 to 5 inches long; flower heads 
axi inch in diameter. 

2. GALIUM, L. Cleavers. 

Limb of the calyx obsolete. Corolla rotate, 4-parted, rarely 3-parted. Styles 2. 
Ovary 2-lobed. Fruit twin, biglobular. Herbs, sometimes woody at the base, with 
square stems, whorled leaves and minute flowers. 

Leaves in fours, hispid, ovate G. Californicum, X 

Leaves in fours and pairs, smooth G. Nuttallii. 2 

Leaves mostly ia whorls of eight G. Aparine, 3 


C)G COMPOSITE, (aster family.) 

Leaves in fives and sixes; fruit hairy G. trifloriim. 4 

Leaves 4, 5 or 6 in a whorl; flowers white G. trifiduni. 5 

Leaves in fours, 3-nerved, lanceolate G. boreale. 9 

1. G. Californicum, Hook and Arn. Low, branching; sterile flowers terminal, in 
threes, corolla yellowish; fertile ones solitary, recurs^ed in fruit; fruit purple. 

2. G. Nuttallii, Gr. Leaves 2 to 5 lines long, thickish, varying from ovate-oblong 
to linear-lanceolate, margins ciliate; flowers solitary. 

8. G. Aparine, L. The margins midrib, and angles of the branches armed with 
spinuloso bristles; peduncles 1-2-flowered; fruit large, white. (?) 

4. G. triflorum, Michx. Bright , green, nearly smooth; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
acute at both ends, the margins and midrib often beset with hooked bristles; peduncles 
once or twice 3-forked; with hooked bristles. 

5. G. trifidum, L. Nearly smooth, except the roughened angles of the slender 
stems; leaves 3 to 9 lines long; lobes of the white corolla often only three; fniit smooth. 

6. G. boreale, L. Cymes many flowered, in a thyrsiform panicle. 

Order 30. V ALERIANACEiE. 

Herbs with opposite leaves, no stipules; the distinct stamens fewer than the lobes o| 
the corolla, and borne on its tube; the inferior ovarj'' with two empty cells, and one con* 
taining a solitary o\nile, ripening into a kind of akene. 

1. PLECTRITIS, (Lindl.) DC. 

Limb of the calyx obsolete. Tube of the corolla very gibbous, spurred at the base; 
the short limb bilabiate; upper lip 2-cleft, lower 3-cleft. Fruit winged by the open 
sterile cells. Flowers white, small. 

1. P. congesta, DC. Corolla about 3 lines long; its spur much shorter than the 

2. P. macrocera, Torr. & Gr. Corolla smaller; its thick spur about the length of 
the body. 

Order 31. COMPOSITiE. 

Flowers, usually many in a dense head, sessile, on a common receptacle, surrounded 
by a calyx-like involucre; the calyx reduced to hairs or scaies, or obsolete; the corolla 
tubular, equally lubed, ligulate or bilabiate, the 5 stamens united by their anthers into a 
tube inclosing the 2-parted style; the ovary inferior forming in fruit an akene which is 
usually crowned with the persistent calyx (pappus). 

This the largest of all the orders, is represented in California by over 500 species, 140 


of which grow within the limits of this Flora. Although the flower heads are frequently- 
large, the separate flowers, with but few exceptions, are too small to be exam.ined with- 
out the aid of a microscope skillfully used. The order is, therefore, far too diflBcult for 
the beginner. 

ORDER LOBELIACEiE. Downinfjia elegans, Torr., and D. pulcheUa,ToTT., are two beautiful plants 
(the flowers resembling the cultivated Lobelias) sometimes cultivated under the name Clintonia, -which 
pr.perly belongs to an endogenous herb. The former has light blue flowers; the latter, deep azure- 
blue; both with white or yellowish centers. May be foimd in wet places. 


Herbs with alternate leaves without stipules and regular flowers, having the calyx 
adnate to the ovary, distinct stamens (5, rarely 4) inserted with the corolla, alternate 
with its lobes. — Calyx persistent. Stamens with introse anthers, opening in the bud. 
Style single, its upper portion beset with hairs which collect the pollen, its summit 2-5- 
lobed or cleft. 

* Ovary and capsule long and narrow. 

Capsule opening at the top; calyx-lobes long Githopsis. 1 

Capsule opening by 2 or 3 holes on the sides Specularia. 2 

* * Ovary and capsule short and broad, or glohidar. 

Capsule bursting indefinitely; calyx-lobes broad Heterocodon. 3 

Capsule opening on the sides by 3 to 5 holes; calyx-lobes narrow Campanula. 4 

1. GITHOPSIS, Nutt. 

Flowers all alike. Calyx with a clavate 10-ribbed tube, and 5 long and narrow folia- 
ceous lobes. Corolla tubular-campanulate, 5-lobed. Filaments short, dilated at the base. 
Ovary 3-celled; stigmas 3. Capsule strongly ribbed, crowned with the rigid calyx-lobes 
of its own length or longer, opening between them by a round hole. 

1. G. specularioides, Nutt. An inch to a span high; leaves lanceolate-oblong or 
linear, sessile, coarsely toothed; flowers erect, deep blue, usually with a white center; 
the ovate lobes of the corolla about equaling the rigid calyx-lobes. 

2. SPECULARIA. Heister. 

Flowers in our species of two kinds; the lower and earlier usually with no corolla, 
Calyx-tube prismatic or elongated-obconical ; the lobes 5, narrow. Corolla short and 
broad, rotate when fully expanded, 5-lobed. Stigmas 3 or 2. Capsule opening by round 
holes on the sides. 

1. S. biflora, Gr. Stems slender; leaves sessile, ovate or oblong, crenately toothed, the 
upper reduced to lanceolate bracts; flowers 1, rarely 2, in each axil, nearly sessile; tho 

68 ERICACE^. (heath FAMILY.) 

lower mostly apetalous, with 3 or 4 short calyx-lobes; the upper with 5 longer calyx- 
lobes, which are shorter than the blue or purple corolla. Capsule with openings near 
the top. 
2. S. perfoliata, A. DC. Stouter, with clasping cordate leaves. 


Flowers of two sorts. Stamens and styles as in Campanula. Capsule 3-angled. 
Otherwise sufficiently characterized in the synopsis. 

1. II. rariflorum, Nutt, A delicate annual, with leafy filiform stems, diffusely 
branching; the thin leaves clasping by cordate bases, coarsely toothed. Corolla blue. 

4. CAMPANULA. Toum. Bellflower. 

Flowers all alike. Calyx-lobes narrow. Corolla campanulate or near it, 5-lobed. 
Stamens 5; filaments dilated at the base. Capsule 3-5-celled, opening on the sides or 
near the base by 3 to 5 small uplifting valves leaving round holes. 

1. C. prenantlioides, Dur. A foot or two high; stems several-flowered; leaves 
ovate-oblong or lanceolate, sharply serrate, sessile, or the lower short-petioled; lobes of 
the blue corolla narrowly lanceolate, widely spreading; style long exserted; capsule 

Order 33. ERICACEiE. 

Woody plants or perennial herbs, with symmetrical and mostly regular flowers; the 
stamens as many or twice as many as the petals or lobes of the corolla, and inserted ^vith 
but rarely upon it; the anthers 2-celled, and the cells opening by a terminal pore; the 
ovary with as many cells as the divisions of the corolla or calyx; the seeds small. Corolla 
generally gamopetalous, sometimes of distinct petals, the insertion and that of the sta- 
mens hypogynous, or when the calyx is adnate epigynous around an annular disk. Style 
single. Leaves simple. 


Shrubs. Ovary wholly or partly inferior. Fruit a berry, crowned with 

the vestiges of the calyx-teeth Vaccinium. 1 

•Sub-order 2. ERICINE^. 

Shrubs or trees. Calyx free. Corolla gamopetalous (in our own species). Stamens 
hypogynous. Anthers introse in the bud. 

ERIC ACE JS. (heath FAMILY.) G9 

• Fruit a berry, or herry-like drupe; corolla-tube inflated or urn-shaped, 5-toothed. 


Tree; ovary 5-cellecl; berry many-seeded Arbutus. 2 

Shrub; ovary 5-10-celled; drupe few-seeded Arctostaphylos. 3 

Shrub; low; berry purple-black Gaultheria. 4 

* * Fruit a naked capsule; corolla funnelform or campanulate, large, 5-lobed. 
Shrubs, with showy flowers Rhododendron. 5 

Sub-order 3. PYROLEiE. 

Calyx free. Corolla of 5 (rarely 4) separate petals. Anthers extrose in the bud, the 
pores downward; iutrose (by bending downward on the end of the filament) in the open 
flower, the j)ore3 upward. 

Stem woody, leaves whorled. Cliiniaphila. 6 

Flowers on a scape Pyrola. 7 


Root-parasitic, scaly-bracted herbs, wholly destitute of green foliage. 
Flowers racemose, corolla globular-ovate Pterospora. 8 

1. VACCINIUM, L. Blueberry, Bilberry, Etc. 

Calyx 4-5-toothed on the summit of the ovary. Corolla various. Stamens 8 to 10; 
the anthers with the two cells separate, tapering upward into a tube opening at the top. 
Style long. 

1. V. ovatum, Pursh. (California Huckleberry). Shrub, erect, 3 to 5 ft high; 
evergreen; leaves thick, shining, ovate, acute, serrate; flowers with the parts in fives, 
stamens 10; corolla campanulate, pink; berries purple-black. 

2. ARBUTUS, Toum. Madrono. 

Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla ovate, 5-toothed; the teeth recurved. Stamens 10, included; 
anthers flattened, furnished with a pair of reflexed awns. Style rather long; berry 
with a rough surface. 

1. A. Menziesii, Pursh. A handsome tree, with smooth bark turning brownish- 
red, which exfoliates except on the trunks of the larger trees; corolla white; berries 
deep orange. 

3. ARCTOSTAPHYLOS. Adan. IManzanita. 

Flowers like those of Arbutus (but occasionally 4-merous and 8-androus), except that 
the 5 to 10 cells of the ovary contain each a single ovule, and the berry-like fruit has 5 

70 EKICACKE. (heath FAMILY.) 

to 10 bony seeds. — The white or rose-colored flowers in terminal racemes; the bark smooth, 


'• Ovanj and depressed-globose fy'uit more, or less pubescent; hraachlets often hispid. 

1. A. Andersonii, Gr. Erect, 6 or 10 ft. high; branchlets minutely tomentose, 
hispid with long, white, bristly hairs; leaves thin-coriaceous, green, lanceolate-oblong or 
ovate lanceolate, with a strongly sagittate-cordate base, sessile or nearly so, mostly 
Bpinulose-serrulate; fruit nearly or quite half au inch in diameter, with viscid bristles. 

2. A. tomentosa, Dougl. Leavesthickand very rigid-coriaceous, varying from oblong- 
lanceolats to ovate and even cordate, entire or rarely serrulate, usually becoming verti* 
cal, smaller than the last; flowers in very short clustered racemes; fruit not viscid. 

* * Ovary glabrous; no Jiispid hairs on the branches and petioles. 

3. A. pumila, Nutt. Erect, dwarf, less than a foot high, tufted; leaves broadest 
near the apex, less than an inch long. 

4. A. pungens, HBK. Leaves commonly becoming vertical by a twist of the dis- 
tinct or pretty long petiole, very rigid, often glaucous or pale, entire or with a few teeth, 
vai-ying from oblong-lanceolate to ov-al; flowers on smooth pedicels; filaments ciHate, 
bearded; fruit yellowish, turning dull red. Very variable. 

A. GLAUCA, Lindl., if found, miy be recognized by its large fruit, with the seeds consolidated 
Into one woody stone, half an inch in diameter. A. bicolor, Gr., is smaller and has small apparently 
one-seeded berries. 

4. GAULTHBRIA, L. Wintebgreex. Salal. 

Calyx 5- cleft, generally colored like the corolla. Corolla 5-toothed. Stamens 10 
included, similar to those of Arbutus. Capsule 5-lobed, 5-celled, many-seeded, inclosed 
in the calyx, which enlarges and makes a juicy berry -like fruit. 

1. G. Shallon, Pursh. Shrubby, stems ascending a foot or two in height; leaves 
ovate or slightly cordate, 2 to 4 inches long, finely serrate, shining; flowers white or rose- 
colored, in glandular- viscid racemes. 


Calyx very small. Corolla often slightly irregular. Stamens 5 to 10; filaments fili- 
form. Style long, commonly declined or incurved. Shrubs with alternate, entire leaves, 
usually crowded on the flowering branchlets; the showy flowers in terminal umbels or 
corymbs from ample scaly buds. 

1. R. occidentale, Gr. (Azalea.) A deciduous shrub, 2 to 6 ft. high; leaves 
obovate-oblong, bright green and shining above; corolla minutely viscid-pubescent out- 
side, white, the upper lobe yellowish inside; the narrow funnel-form tube equaling the 
deeply 5-cleft slightly irregular limb; stamens and style much exserted, curved. — The 
showy fragrant flowers arc sometimes Jiearly three inches long; rarely pinkish. 

E. CALIFORNICUM, Hook., is a larger cvergi'een shrub, with large bell-shaped rose-purple flowers* 
a true Rhododendron, ■proha.hly not found south of Mendocino Coimty. 


6. CHIMAPHILA, Pursh. Pipsissewa. 

Corolla of rotately spreading, orbicular and concave petals. Stamens 10. Style very 
short, inversely conical, nearly immersed in the depressed ovarj^; stigma broad, its border 
somewhat 5-crenate. • 

C. umbellata, Nutt. A nearly herbaceous evergreen, 6 to 18 inches high; the usually 
whorled leaves oblanceolate, bright green; peduncle bearing 3 to 7 white or flesh-colored, 
waxy flowers. — Mt. St. Helena, Jliss E. Sivett. 

7. PYROLA, Toum. 

Corolla of 5 concave and converging petals. Stamens as in CIdmaphila. Style gen- 
erally long; stigma 5-lobed or 5-rayed. — Low and smooth perennial herbs, with broad 
and petioled leaves, close to the ground, and more or less scaly-bracted scape bearing a 
simple raceme of white, greenish or rose-colored, nodding flowers. 

1. P rotundifolia, L. Leaves orbicular, varying to round-obovate or round-reni- 
form, on slender, naked petioles; scape 6 to 14 inches high; probably our plants are of the 
Var. bracteata, Gr. A large form, with leaves 2 or 3 inches long; scaj^e often over a 
foot high. 

2. P. picta, Smith. Leaves thick, coriaceous; pale, sometimes purplish below; com- 
monly blotched with white, ovate to obovate and lanceolate-oblong, on short petioles, 1 
to 2 inches long; smaller than the last. 


Calyx deeply 5-parted, short, persistent. Corolla withering-persistent, globular-ovate, 
with contracted mouth; the 5 very short lobes, recurved. Stamens 10, included, short; 
stigma 5-lobed. 

L P. andromedea, Xutt. A stout, purplish-brown or chestnut-colored and 
clammy-pubescent herb, 1 to 3 ft. high; raceme long, many-flowered; corolla white, 3 
lines long. 

SAECODES SAXGUINEA, Torr. The Snow Plant of the Sierra Nevada belongs here. 

Order 34. PLUMB AGINA CEiE. 

Chiefly maritime herbs, with regular flowers, the parts in fives; the stamens opposite 
the petals. Calyx tubular or funnel-form, 5-plaited, 5-toothed, persistent. Corolla in 
our genera with the long-clawed petals scarcely united. Stamens adnate to tlie base of 
the petals. 

Flowers in a globose head on a simple scape Armeria. 1 

Flowers' on a branching scape Statice. 2 


1. ARMERIA, Wiilcl Thkiit. 

Cah'x scarious, funnel-form. Styles 5, filiform. Stemless perennials, with linear 
grass-like leaves in close tufts, the naked scape bearing a head of rose-colored flowers. 

1. A. vulgaris, Willd. Scapes a foot or two high. On sandy liills along the 


Flowers in small spikes or clusters, crowded at the extremities of a branching scape; 
their structure nearly as in Armei-ia. Leaves commonly with a broad blade, tapering 
into a petiole. 

1. S. Limonium, L. Leaves obovate-oblong ; spikelets 2-3-flowered. Salt 

Order 35. PRIMULACEiE. 

Herbs, with perfect, regular flowers, well marked, by having the stamens as long as 
the lobes of the corolla, and opposite to them, inserted on its tube, a single entire style 
and stigma, a one-celled ovar^-, and capsular fruit. Calyx 4-S-cleft, commonly 5-cleft, 
hypog}Tious. — Leaves simple; stipules none. Li Glaux the corolla is wanting; stamens 
on the caJyx alternate with its lobes. 

* Flowers umbellate on a naked scape. 

Corolla deeply 4-o-parted, the lobes reflexed Dodecatheon. 1 

* * Flowers axillari/, on leafy sterns. 

Corolla 5-9-parted, rotate Trientalis. 2 

Corolla 5-parted; prostrate stems Anagallis. 3 

Corolla wanting; calyx colored Glaux, 4 


Calyx deeply 5-cleft, the divisions reflexed in the flower, afterwards erect over the 
ovate or oblong capsule. Corolla with a very short tube, a dilated, thickened throat and 
an abruptly reflexed 4-o-parted limb; its divisions long and narrow, entire. Stamens 
inserted in the throat of the corolla, erect, cohering around the slender exserted style. — 
Acaulescent perennial smooth herbs, %vith a tuft of radical leaves. Corolla purple, pink, 
or rarely white. Frequently the parts are in fours. 

1. D. Meadia, L. Leaves varying from obovate to lanceolate, entire or toothed; 
scape 3 to 15 inches high; umbel, 2-20-flowered. A variable species. Ours is chiefly 

Var. brevifolimn, with leaves roimd-obovate or spatulate, less than an inch to an 
inch and a half long. 


2. TRIENTALIS, L. Star-flower. 

Calyx and wheel-shaped corolla about 7-parted. Filaments slender, spreading. — Low 
and glabrous perennials, with simple stems, which bear a whorl of leaves at the summit, 
in their axils slender peduncles supporting star-shaped, white or pinkish flowers. 

1. T. Europasa, L., Var. latifolia, Torr. Stems 4 to 8 inches high, springing 
from a little tuber. 


Divisions of the rotate 5-parted corolla broad. Capsule globose. — Spreading, prostrate 
herbs, with opposite or whorled leaves and axillary flowers. 

1. A. arvensis, L. Leaves ovate, sessile, shorter than the peduncles, sometimes in 
threes; flowers scarlet, purple, or nearly salmon-colored, rarely blue. 

4. GLAUX, L. Sea :Milkwort. 

Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft; the lobes ovate, petal-like. Filaments rather shorter than 
the cal3rx. Style filiform; stigma capitate. 

1. G. maritima, L. Low, glabrous; branching stems 3 to 9 inches high, leafy to 
the top; leaves commonly opposite, fleshy, oblong, half an inch or less long, minutely 
dotted; flowers axillary, almost sessile, white or purplish. 

Order CLI]ACI].S is represented by Frax'mus Oregana, Xutt., the Oregon Ash. 

Order APOCYNACU^ is represented by Apocynum cannaUnum, L. .(Indian 
Hemp.) An herb with milky juice, tough bark, opposite entire exstipulate leaves, regular 
flower.^, the sepals, petals and stamens five, the latter borne on the corolla alternate with 
its lobes and conniving around the stigma. The commonly sessile, oblong leaves often 3 
or 4 inches long. The greenish- white small flowers in close cymes. A. androscBmifolium, 
L., has smaller ovate leaves, conspicuously petioled; flowers rose-colored. 


Herbs with milky juice, no stipules, and regular flowers, with the parts in fives, except 
that there are two carpels with distinct ovaries and a common stigma to which the sta- 
mens are attached; the latter (in our genera) with hood-like appendages. Leaves entire, 
generally opposite, sometimes whorled. Flowers usually in simple umbels. Fruit a 
pair of follicles. Seeds almost always with a coma of silky down. 

1. ASCLEPIAS. L. Milkweed. 
The calyx and corolla deeply o-parted; the small divisions reflexed; filaments short, 
crowned behind each anther with a conspicuous hood from the cavity of which, 
rises the subulate and usually falcate hem; anthers with thin scarious tips inflexcd 


over the truncate summit of the stigma, their wing-like edges meeting and projecting 
between the hoods; pollen in 10 wax-like masses. Follicles ovate or lanceolate. Seeds 
numerous, flat, downwardly imbricated all over the large, soon detached placenta; the 
upper end with a long tuft of down (coma). — Hoods in our species erect and not exceed- 
ing the stamens and stigma. 

1. A. fascicularis, Decaisne. Smooth, slender, 1 to 5 ft. high; leaves in whorls of 
3 to 5, or some in pairs, linear and linear-lanceolate; flowers white or whitish; horns 
longer than the hoods. 

2. A. vestita, Hook & Arn. White-woolly; leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate, almost sessile; umbels almost sessile; flowers about half an inch long, 
the hoods flesh-colored. 


No horn to the hood of the stamens; otherwise as Asdepias. 

§ 1. Hoods saccate, pointless, lower than the anthers, opening down the hack, asif 2-valved. 

1. G. tomentosus, Gr. White-tomentose, closely resembling Asdepias vistitia; 
stem acutely angled; leaves ovate or oblong (about 4 inches long); corolla greenish-white 
or purplish. 

2. G. purpurascens, Gr. Canescently puberulent; stems 4 to 12 inches high; 
leaves ovate and somewhat cordate, an inch or two long; flowers small; the corolla red- 
purple; the hoods white. 

§ 2. Hoods erect, open down the front, somewhat surpassing the anthers. 

3. G. cordifolius, Benth. Green and smooth, 2 or 3 ft. high; leaves ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, with cordate clasping base, opposite, rarely in threes, 2 to 5 inches long; 
flowers large; corolla dark red-purple; the hoods purplish. 

Order 37. GENTIANACEiE. 

Glabrous herbs, with colorless, bitter juice, entire opposite and sessile leaves, no sti- 
pules, perfect and regular flowers, stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate 
with them, inserted on the tube, the anthers free from the stigma; ovary 1-celled; style 
one or none; the stigmas commonly two. Calyx persistent. 

§ 1. Corolla withering-persistent. Leaves opposite or whorled, entire, sessile. 

Corolla salver-form, red; calyx 5-parted ErythraBa. 1 

Corolla short, salver-form, yellow; caylx 4- toothed Microcala. 2 

Corolla funnel-form, blue Gentiana, 3 

§ 2. Corolla deciduous. Leaves alternate, with sheathing petioles. 
Flowers borne on a naked scape Menyanthes, 4 


1. ERYTHRiEA, Pers. 

Stamens inserted on the throat of the corolla; filaments slender; anthers oblong or 
linear, twisting spirally after shedding the pollen. Style filiform; stigma wedge-shaped 
or fan-like. Capsule oblong, tapering upward. — Corolla occasionally only 4-parted. 

1. E. trichautha, Grise. A span or less high, branched; lobes of the rose-red corolla 
lanceolate, fully half the length of the tube at the time of expansion, 3 or 4 lines long; 
calyx-lobes filifonn, 3-angled. 

2. E. Muhlenbergii, Grise. Two inches to a span high, simple or branched; leaves 
oblong, half an inch long; lobes of the corolla oval, very obtuse, becoming oblong, 


2. MICROCAIjA, Link. 

Anthers round-cordate. Stigma peltate-dilated, at length separating or separable into 
2 plates. 

1. M. quadrangularis, Grise. An inch or two high, fihform, simple and 1-flowered, 
or branched at the base, witli 1 to 3 pairs of minute oval or oblong leaves; peduncles 
naked, square; calyx short, square; corolla saflron-yellow. 

3. GENTIANA, L. Gentian. 

Calyx 4^5-toothed or cleft. Corolla 4-5-lobed, often with plaited and toothed folds in 
the sinuses. Stamens included; anthers sometimes cohering. Style none or very short; 
stigmas 2, thin and flat. 

1. G. afEnis, Grise., var. ovata, Gr. A span to a footer two high; leaves ovate 
or oblong; flowers mostly 5 or more, in a leafy thyrsus; corolla blue, an inch or more in 
length; appendages mostly 2-cleft or 2-i- cuspidate, shorter than the round-ovate lobes. 

4. MENYANTHES, Tourn. Buckbean. 

The campanulate corolla densely white-bearded on the upper surface, the lobes wdth 
the margins turned inward in the bud. 

1. M. trifoliata, L. The alternate leaves long petioled, 3-foliolate; scape termi- 
nated by a short raceme of white or pinkish flowers; anthers dark-brown, sagittate. — In 
shallow water or on wet ground. 


Chiefly herbs with simple or divided leaves, and no stipules; all the parts of the regu- 
lar flow^er five, except the pistil, which has a 3-celled ovary and-'a 3-lobed style. Calyx 
imbricated in the bud, persistent. Corolla convolute in the bud. Stamens on the corolla 
alternate with its lobes distinct; anthers introse. — In Gilia the cells of the ovary and the 
stigmas are occasionally reduced to two. 


Stamens unequally inserted and included in the narrow tube of the salver- 
form corolla . . Collomia. 1 

Stamens equally inserted on the throat or tube of the corolla; filaments 

not declined Gilia. 2 

Filaments more or less declined; otherwise as Gilia. Leaves all pinnate 

and alternate; corolla short Polemonium. 3 

1. COLLOMIA, Nutt. 

The throat of the corolla commonly enlarged. Stamelis more or less exserted, with 
slender filaments, mostly glandular-viscid; with alternate leaves, or the lower ojjposite, 

* Leaves simple and sessile, entire, the lower ones opposite. 

1. C. gracilis, Dougl. A span or two high, in age much branched; the flowers at 
length somewhat scattered; leaves lanceolate or linear, or the lowest oval or obovate, 
an inch or less long; corolla rose-purple, turning bluish, less than half an inch long, 

* * Leaves deeply cleft or compound, the lower petioled; stems loosely branched. 

2. C. gilioides, Benth. A span to 3 ft. high; lower leaves simply pinnately parted 
into linear lateral lobes, or the terminal lobe oblong and toothed, upper leaves 3-5- 
divided; corolla pink or purplish, its slender tube about half an inch long, twice or 
thrice the length of the calyx; capsule globular, 3-seeded. 

3. C. heterophylla, Hook. A span or two high, dififuse; leaves mostly pinnately 
parted or the upper pinnatifid, and the lobes incised or cleft; the u^jper most often entire 
and broader, subtending the capitate-clustered flowers; corolla purplish, lialf an inch 
long; stamens very ujiequally inserted. 

2. GILIA. Euiz & Pav. 

Corolla funnel-form, salver-form, or sometimes short-campanulate or rotate, regular. 
Stamens equally inserted (but sometimes with unequal filaments), not declined. Leaves 

* All of the leaves opposite, at least on the main stems, sessile and palmately parted or 
rarely entire. (Seeds mucilaginous in water.) 

Corolla from short funnel-form to almost rotate; the lobes obovate; filaments slender; 
anthers oval. Low or slender, loosely and mostly small flowered annuals; the leaves 
with filiform or setaceous divisions, appearing as if whorled. Li ours, the flowers on 
filiform pedicels, loosely paniculate. § 1. Dactijlophyllum. 

Corolla salver-form, but the tube shorter than the calyx, the broad cuneate-obovate 


lobes slightly crenulate, strongly convolute in the bud; stamens inserted low on the 
corolla tube, included; erect, smooth; leaves entire or 3-5-divided. § 2. Linanthus. 

Corolla salver-form, with usually a filiform elongated tube, and the throat sometimes 
abruptly dilated; stamens inserted in the throat; anthers short. Erect annuals, with 
leaves as in the last, and the flowers in a terminal capitate cluster. § 3. LejAosiphon. 

* * All the leaves alternate and palmately parted. 
Corolla similar to § 3. Stems woody; leaves much fascicled in the axils, 3-7-parted, 
rigid; flowers sessile, solitary or few at the ends of short branches. § 4. Leptodactylon. 

* * * All, or all hut the lowest leaves alternate and pinnately compound, cUft or toothed^ 

or rarely entire. 

Flowers capitate-glomerate or densely clustered, leafy-bracted; bracts and calyx-lobes 
often laciniate, rigid-acerose or spinulose-tipped. Corolla slender tubular-funnelform, 
with small oblong lobes; cells of the ovary aud stigmas sometimes only 2. Annuals, 
mostly viscid-pubescent, never white- woolly, with once or twice pinnatifid leaves, their 
lobes commonly pungent; the bracts sometimes palrnately cleft. § 5. Navarretia. 

Flowers, inflorescence, etc., nearly as in § 5; but the anthers always exserted; corolla 
salver-form, more conspicuous; plants all white-woolly, not viscid. § 6. Hugelia. 

Flowers capitate-glomerate, or panicled, or scattered, usually bractless; corolla (blue, 
purple or violet) from funnel-form to campanulate or almost I'otate; stamens included or 
not surpassing the corolla lobes; leaves mostly pinnately incised. § 7. EuyiUa. 

§ 1. Dactylophyllum. Benth. 

1. G. liniflora, Benth. From a few inches to over a foot high; leaves with nearly 
filiform divisions an inch long; corolla white, rotate, when fully open, 10 to 6 lines across, 
5-parted down to the very short tube. 

Var. pharnaceoides, Gr., is similar but smaller; the (sometimes pinkish) corolla half 
an inch across, or less. 

2. G. pusilla, Benth. Small, 2 to G inches high; leaves less than half an inch long, 
shorter than the scattered pedicels; corolla nearly white, or purplish with a yellow 
throat, li to 2 lines long, little exceeding the calyx. 

Var. Californica, Gr., has a corolla 3 lines long, twice the length of the calyx; the 
throat often brownish. The most frequent form. 

3. G. Bolanderi, Gr. Very like the last, but the tube of the blue or purple tinged 
corolla longer and narrower (3 or 4 lines long). 

4. G. aurea, Xutt. Difiuse, 2 to 4 inches high; divisions of roughish leaves nar- 
rowly linear, 3 lines long; peduncles shorter or but little longer than the flowers; corolla 
usually yellow, short, funnel-form half an inch or less across; the roundish-obovate lobes 
about the length of the obconical throat and the short proper tube. 


Var. decora, Gr. Corolla white or pale violet, with or without a brown-purple 
throat; peduncles longer. 

§ 2. Linanthus, Endl. 

5. G. dicliotonia, Benth. A span to a foot high, remotely leaved; flowers nearly 
sessile in the forks, or terminating the branches; calyx-tube white scarious; the teeth 
green; corolla white; the lobes from half to nearly an inch long; the tube sometimes 

§ 3. Leptosiphon, Endl. 

6. G. densiflora, Benth. A span to 2 ft. high; leaves in somewhat distant apparent 
whorls; tube of the white or rose-purple corolla about equaling the viUous-hirsute bracts 
and calyx; its lobes nearly half an inch long, obovate. 

7. G- androsacea, Steud. Erect or spreading, 3 to 12 inches high; corolla lilac, 
rose, pink or almost white, with a yellow or dark throat; its tube about an inch long. 

Var. rosacea, Gr., is a dwarf tufted form with many rose-red flowers. 

8. G. micrantha, Steud. Slender, about a span high; tube of the corolla very 
slender, 9 to 18 lines long; the lobes 2 or 3 lines long, from yeUow to cream color and pale 
purple, or whitish. 

9. G. tenella, Benth. Low and mostly depressed; tube of the corolla C to 9 lines 
long, the rose colored or pink lobes barely a line and a half long, the throat yellow; 
bracts and leaves hispidulous-ciliate. 

10. G. ciliata, Benth. More rigid and hirsute than the preceding, a span to a foot 
high; tube of the rose-colored or purple, or in age whitish corolla, little if at all exserted 
beyond the very hirsute or hispid-ciliate bracts and subtending leaves, the lobes only a 
line and a half long. 

§ 4. Leptodactylon, Hook & Am. 

11. G. Califomica, Benth. Two or three feet high, with spreading rigid branches; 
corolla rose-color or lilac, an inch and a half in diameter. 

§ 5. Navarretia^ Gr. 
* Stamens included in the throat of the corolla. 

12. G. squarrosa, Hook & Am. Ptigid, rather stout, becoming much branched, 
very glandular- viscid, fetid with the odor of a skunk; upper leaves and bracts spinescent; 
corolla blue, 4 or 5 lines long. 

* * Stamens more or Zess exserted; corolla slender^ 3 to 5 lines long. Leaves twice pinnatifid. 

13. G. cotulaefolia Steud. Rather stout and rigid, a foot or much less in height; 
villous pubescent and minutely glandular; upper bracts spinescent; tube of the ^'ioletor 
whitish corolla hardly longer than the calyx; capsule usually 1-seeded. Exhales the 
odor of Anthemis cotula (Mayweed). 

14. G. intertexta, Steud. At length diffusely much branched, a span high, neither 


viscid nor glandular; stems retrorsely pubescent; leaves mainly smooth, scarcely bipin- 
natifid; base' of the'bracts and tube of the calyx densely white- villous; corolla white. 

15. G. leucocepliala, Gr. A span high, rather slender, loosely branched, smooth, 
except a little woolliness at the top; leaves soft; bracts hardly pungent; heads dense; 
corolla white, longer than the calyx. 

* * * Stamens ex^^erted; leaves only once pinnatlfidy rigid, linear; corolla violet or purple, 

bareli/ luCf an inch long, about twice the length of the pungent calyx-lobes. 

16. G. viscidula, Gr. A span high or less, at length much branched, viscid-pu- 
bescent; bracts palmately cleft. 

17. G. atiactyloides, Steud. Much more rigid than the last; leaves broader, the 
floral ovate, all with subulate spiny lobes; few flowered. 

§ 6. Hugelia, Benth. 
* Boot perennial; stems woody at the base, 

18. G, densifoHa, Benth. A foot or two high; stems leafy, leaves linear, rigid, the 
short lobes subulate; flowers numerous in a compact head; corolla over half an inch 
long, violet blue, exceeding the calyx, the lobes 3 lines long; anthers sagittate. 

* * Boot annual, stems slender, afoot or less in height; leaves and their feio [if any) 

divisions filiform. 

19. G. virgata, Steud. Tube of the blue corolla longer than the calyx; anthers 

Var. floribunda, Gr. Low and rather stout ; even the upper leaves pinnately 3-7-partedj 
the numerous heads and flowers as large as G. densifolia. 

§ 7. Eugilia, Benth. 

* Flowers numerous in dense head-like clusters on long naked peduncles; stems erect; stamens 

inserted in the very sinuses of the short and broad corolla; leaves twice or thrice pin- 
nately dissected into linear divisions. 

20. G. capitata, Dougl. Mostly smooth; stem slender, loosely branched above, a 
foot or two high; lobes of the light blue (rarely white) corolla narrowly oblong, 2 lines 

21. G. achilleaefolia, Benth. Stouter and lower than the last, often glandular; 
the capitate clusters and flowers larger; calyx woolly; lobes of the deeper blue corolla 

* * Flowers in small, rather loose clusters, or scattered in an ojyen panicle. 

22. G. multicaulis, Benth. A span to a foot high, simple in early plants, loosely 
branched in later; flowers few in a cluster terminating the slender naked peduncles, 
almost sessile ; the violet corolla 4 lines long, tube shorter than the viscid calyx; throat 
funnel-form; capsule ovoid. 


Var. tenera, Gr., is a depauperate form; frequently the peduncles only 1 -flowered. 

23. G. tricolor, Benth. A span to a foot or two high, in age diffusely branched; 
flowers few, in loose, rather short-peduncled clusters; corolla with a very short proper 
tube and an ample campanulate throat which is pale yellow or orange below, dark pur- 
ple above; the lilac or violet lobes longer than the stamens. 

24. G. iuconspicua, Dougl. A span to a foot liigh, somewhat \nscid or glandular; 
corolla violet-purple or bluish, twice or thrice the length of the calyx, but small, the 
lobes only a line long. It passes by gradation into 

Var. sinuata, Gr., with the tube of the corolla more slender and exserted and the 
lobes often 2 lines long. 


Flowers as in Cilia, § Eugilia, but the corolla short and broad, the stamens somewhat 
declined, the filaments hairy appendaged at the base. Calyx herbaceous, its divisions 
and those of the pinnate leaves pointless. 

1. P. c^ruleum, L. (Greek V^vlerian.) Smooth or viscid-pubescent, 2 or 3 ft. 
high, leafy, usually bearing numerous flowers; corolla an inch or more across, bright blue 
varying to white; stamens and style exserted. 


Inflorescence usually scorpioid; flowers perfect, regular, 5-androus, the two styles dis- 
tinct at least at the apex; stigmas terminal, small, capitate. Only in Romanioffia are 
the stigmas as well as the styles united. Ovary commonly hispid or hirsute, at least at 
the top. — Mostly herbs, with alternate or rarely opposite leaves and no stipules. 

Tribe 1. HYDROPHYLLB.ZG. Ovary and capsule 1-celled. Style 2-cleft. 
Corolla almost always convolute in the bud. Herbs. 

Flowers solitary or loosely racemose. 

Calyx with reflexed appendages Nemophila. 1 

Calyx naked at the sinuses Ellisia. 2 

Tribe 2. PHACBLIE.S. Ovary 1-2-celled. Style 1-2-cleft. Corolla imbricated m 
the bud. Calyx naked at the sinuses. Herbs. 

Corolla not yellow, deciduous Phacelia. 3 

Corolla yellow, persistent Emmenanthe, 4 

Style and stigma entire Romanzoffia. 5 

Tribe 3. NAMEiE. Ovary, capsule, dehiscence, etc., nearly of Phaceliece. Styles 

distinct to the base, stigmas capitate. 
Low slirubs Eriodictyon. 6 


1. NEMOPHILA, Nutt. 

Calyx 5-parted. Corolla rotate-campanulate, deeply 5-lobed, the throat appendaged 
with 10 internal plates or scales. — Tender herbs with diffuse and procumbent stems, and 
pinnately lobed or divided leaves, more or less hirsute. 

* Leaves mostly alternate; stems long and weak, beset loith stiff rejlexed bristles. 

1. N. aurita, Lindl. Leaves large, with auriculate dilated and clasping base or 

winged petiole deeply pinnatifid into 5 to 9 retrorse lobes; corolla ^'iolet, 5 to 12 lines in 


* * Leaves opposite not auricled at base. 

2. N, maculata, Benth, Leaves lyrately pinnatifid into 5 to 9 short lobes, or the 
Uppermost only 3-lobed; corolla white, with a violet spot at the top of each lobe, over 
an inch across. 

3. N. insignis, Dougl. Leaves similar to the last; corolla bright blue, its scales 
Bhort and roundish, partly free. 

4. N. Menziesii, Hook & Arn. Leaves less divided than the last; corolla from 
light blue to white and sprinkled with dots toward the center, its scales narrow and ad- 
herent by one edge. 

* * * Upper leaves often alternate, mostly longer than the peduncles, and slender-petioledy 
many only 3-S-lobed, one-sided. 

5. N. parviflora, Dougl. Slender and weak; corolla 2 to 5 lines across, light blue 
or white. 


Calyx 5-parted. Corolla campanulate, short in proportion to the calyx; scales minute 
or obsolete. Stamens and style not exserted. 

1. E, chrysanthemifolia, Benth. Stem 1 or 2 ft. high, erect, branched; leaves dis- 
sected into very many small and short divisions; flowers, small, white; capsule remark- 
able, viz. : the mostly four ordinary rough seeds enclosed between the placentae, while, 
between each placenta and the valve which it lines, is hidden a single thin, meniscoidal, 
smooth seed. 

3. PHACELIA, Juss. 

Calyx deeply 5-parted, the divisions usually narrow and similar; corolla from almost 
rotate to narrow-funnelform; commonly with ajjpendages upon the inside of the tube in 
the form of 10 vertical plates, approximate in pairs between the bases of the filaments, 
or adnate to the filaments, one on each side. Stamens equally inserted low down or at 
the base of the corolla. Herbs, mostly hirsute or hispid and branched from the base; 
with simple or compound alternate leaves, or the lower opposite and more or less scor- 
pioid infloresence. Corolla never yellow except in the throat. Ovules and seeds 4 in all 
except the last species. (See Addenda. ) 


* Leaves simple and entire, or with a pair or two of similar and smaller leaflets or lobes, 

1. P. circinata, Jacq. f. A span to a foot or two high from a stout root, hispid and 
the foliage strigose, either green, grayish or canescent, with a soft pubescence; leaves 
from lanceolate to ovate, acute, the lower tapering into a petiole and some bearing lateral 
leaflets; inflorescence in dense scorpioid hispid spikes, crowded; corolla dull or bluish 
white; filaments much exserted. — A very variable species; usually many stems from one 
root; some with large entire, ovate green leaves only. 

2. P; Breweri, Gr. Foliage and habit similar to the last, but smaller and more 
slender, from an annual root; leaves seldom an inch long, many of them 3-5-parted, the 
lanceolate lateral lobes ascending; corolla smaller (scarcely 3 lines long), blue or violet; 
filaments not exserted. 

* * Leaves simple, rounded, cordate, lohed and serrate. 

3. P. malvaefolia, Cham. Stout, loosely branching, hispid with stinging hairs; 
leaves 2 inches or more in diameter; spikes solitary, or in pairs; corolla 3 to 6 lines long, 
dull white or bluish; stamens much exserted. 

* * * Leaves once to thrice pinnatifld or pinnately compound, oblong in general outline. 

Calyx bristly hispid, its lobes not rarely unequal. Annuals, the species difficult to dis- 

4. P. tanacetifolia, Benth. Erect, 1 to 3 ft. high, roughish, hirsute or hispid; 
leaves 9-17-divided in narrow once or twice pinnately parted or cleft divisions, all sessile 
or nearly so; the scorpioid spikes clustered; the short pedicels erect or ascending; corolla 
usually of a dirty mottled white or bluish; stamens and style much exserted; calyx lobes 
not twice the length of the capsule. 

5. P. ramosissima, Dougl. Straggling, somewhat viscid above; leaves pinnately 
5-7-divided or parted into linear pinnatifid-incised divisions; the short pedicels soon 
horizontal; stamens and style moderately exserted; calyx lobes more than twice the 
length of the globular capsule; flowers bluish. 

6. P. cilia ta, Benth. A span to a foot high; leaves rarely divided but incised or 
cleft and toothed; spikes simple or in pairs; stamens usually not surpassing the open 
corolla; calyx lobes ciliate with glandular bristles; corolla blue. 

* * * * Leaves entire, or the lower 1-2-lobcd, not cordate, the veins parallel or converging, as 

in P. circinata; no glandular pubescence ; calyx with long hairs; seeds more than 4- 

7. P. divaricata, Gr. Diffusely spreading, a span or more in height; leaves ovate 
or ob]ong; style 2-cleft at the apex only; corolla violet, about 10 lines in diameter. 

4. EMMENANTHE, Benth. 
Distinguished from Phacelia by the persistent yellow or cream-colored corolla. 


1. E. penduliflora, Benth. A span to a foot high; somewhat viscid; leaves pinna- 
tdfid; pedicels filiform, abont half an inch long, equaling the nodding corolla. 


Stamens unequal; style filiform. Low perennial herbs, with the aspect of saxifrages; 
the leaves mainly radical, round-cordate, or reniform, crenately T-ll-lobed, long petioled. 

1. R. Sitchensis, Bong. Scapes weak, a span long, bearing several pink or pur- 
ple, varying to white flowers; corolla veiny. 


Calyx deeply 5-parted. Corolla funnel-form to salver-form. Stamens included. — Lotv 
Bhrubs; the leaves alternate, of rigid coriaceous texture, the finely reticulated veinleta 
conspicuous on a fine woolly ground, at least underneath, their margins beset with rigid 

1. E. glutinosum, Benth. (Mountain Balm, or Yerba Santa.) Smooth, glu- 
tinous with a resinous exudation, 3 to 5 ft. high; leaves lanceolate, 3 to 6 inches long; 
cymes in a naked panicle; corolla tubular, funnel-form, violet or nearly white, half an 
inch long. 

E. tomentosum, Bentli., grows farther down the coast. It is larger with Bmaller almost salver-fornj 
flowers; densely villous. 


Mostly roughly pubescent herbs, with alternate entire leaves without stipules, scor- 
pioid inflorescence, and perfectly regular o-androus flowers; the ovary of 4 lobes or 
divisions around a central style, ripening into seed-like nutlets. Calyx free, 5-parted 
or 5-cleft, persistent. Corolla with a 5-lobed limb, commonly imbricated in the bud. 
Stamens distinct, inserted in the tube or throat of the corolla alternate with its lobes. 
The one-sided and coiled apparent spikes or racemes straighten as the blossoms develop. 

All our species except the first belong to the true Borrage Tribe. 

* Fruit not prickly. 

Corolla with plaited sinuses; stigma sessil'i Heliotropium. 1 

Corolla yellow. Bristly-hispid plants Amsinckia, 2 

Corolla white Eritrichium. 3 

* * The nutlets prickly, bur-like. 

Flowers sky-blue (rarely white) in bracteate racemes Echinospennum. 4 

Flower purple, blue and violet in a peduncled raceme Cynoglossum. 5 

Flowers minute; nutlets vringed, or boat-shaped Pectocarya. 6 



Corolla with plaited sinuses. Filaments short or none; anthers connivent and some, 
times cohering. Style entire or none; stigma a fleshy ring or the edge of a peltate or 
umbrella-shaped disk. Fruit dry, sj)litting into 4 nutlets. 

1 . H. Curassavicum, L. A smooth and somewhat glaucous succulent herb with 
spreading or prostrate stems; leaves oblanceolate, an inch or two long; flowers crowded, 
white or blue; stigma sessile, flat-topped. Blackens in drj^ing. 

2. AMSINCKIA, Lehm. 

Corolla salver-form, or somewhat funnel-form, more or less plaited in the bud at the 
sinuses, with the tube exceeding the calyx, lobes rounded. Filaments short. Style fili- 
form; stigma capitate-2-lobed. Nutlets ovate-triangular. Hispid annuals with oblong- 
ovate to linear leaves, and yellow flowers in at length loose scorpioid spikes or racemes, 
without bracts, except sometimes the lowest. 

* Nutlets rough, the hack convex. 

1. A. spectabilis, Fisch. & Mey. Erect, a span to a foot high; leaves mostly linear; 
tube of the bright orange-yellow corolla, two or three times the length of the linear, 
rusty-hispid calyx, nearly half an inch long; the throat enlarged, and the expanded limb 
a third to half an inch in diameter. 

2. A. intermedia, Fisch. & Mey. Erect, usually a foot or two high; leaves linear 
or only the lower lanceolate; corolla bright yellow, 3 or 4 lines long; its tube a little 
surpassing the calyx-lobes; the limb 2 or 3 lines in diameter. 

3. A. lycopsoides, Lehm. Loosely branched, soon spreading, sometimes decum- 
bent, sparsely hispid with bristles, which on the leaves have conspicuous pustulate bases; 
leaves from lanceolate to ovate, the margins iTsually undulate; upper flowers mostly 
bractless; corolla light yellow, about 4 lines long; the throat little enlarged; the limb 2 
or 3 lines in diameter. Passes into 

Var. bracteosa, Gr., a smaller-flowered decumbent form, with most of the flowers 

* * Nutlets nearly fiat on the hack, coarsely granulate. 

4. A. tessellata, Gr. About a foot high, rather stout, coarsely hispid, the bris- 
tles of the calyx rusty; corolla orange-yellow, 3 or 4 lines long, the throat plaited, the 
tube rather longer than the obtuse calyx-lobes; nutlets broadly ovate, thickly covered 
"with warty granulations closely fltting like the blocks of a pavement. 

* * * Nutlets at maturity, whitish, smooth and polished. 

5. A. vemicosa, Hook & Am. Sparsely bristly; leaves linear to ovate-lanceolate; 
corolla light yellow, 4 or 5 lines long, and the limb narrow; nutlets shaped like a grain 
of buckwheat. 


Var. grandiflora, Gr. llobust, more hispid and large flowered, the limbs broader; 
calyx lobes often combined, so as to appear as 3 or 4. 


Most obviously distinguished from AmsincJcia and the nearer EcJiinospeTmum by its 
Usually smaller white flowers, with shorter corolla tube. The species difficult of deter- 

1. E. Californicum, DC. The slender stems decumbent, a span or more long; 
the leaves narrowly linear; stems flowering from near the base; flowers almost sessile, 
mostly with leaves or bracts, at length scattered; the corolla only a line long; calyx open 
in fruit. Passes into 

Var. subglochidiatuin, Gr. Slightly succulent; lower leaves inclined to spatulate, 
nutlets somewhat barbed. Wet ground. 

2. E. Scouleri, A. DC. Slender, erect a span to a foot high ; leaves narrowly linear 
(1 or 2 inches long); flowers in geminate or sometimes paniculate slender naked spikes, 
most of them bractless; pedicels not more than a line long; calyx erect in fruit; corolla 
surpassing the calyx, the limb almost rotate, 2 to 5 lines in diameter. — Seems to pass 
into the next. 

3. E. Chorisianum, DC. At first erect, soon spreading or decumbent; larger leaves, 
2 to 4 inches long; flowers in lax, usually solitary racemes, many of them leafy-bracted; 
pedicels sometimes filiform and 2 to 9 lines long; corolla more funnel-form, its limb 3 
to 5 lines in diameter. — This may be a wet ground form of the last, which grows on dry 

4. E. fulvum, A. DC. A span to a foot high, slender branched from a leafy base, 
pubescent; leaves linear, or the lower lanceolate or spatulate; spikes at maturity nearly 
filiform, bracteate. only at the base; calyx, etc., densely clothed with rusty or fulvous 
hairs; calyx deciduous, only the lower part remaining under the fruit; corolla limb 2 
lines across. 

5. E. canescens, Gr. Stouter and larger than the last; the pubescence whitish. 
Hot rusty; leaves linear; calyx hardly deciduous. 

6. E. oxycaryum, Gr. May be known by the solitary ovate-acuminate, smooth, 
shining nutlet enclosed in the persistent bur-like calyx; corolla 2 lines wide. 


Calyx lobes spreading or reflexed in fruit. Corolla short, salver-form, and with con- 
spicuous arching crests at the throat. Short filaments, style, etc., as in Eritrichium. 
Nutlets with barbed prickles. 

1. E. floribundum, Lehm. Rather strict, 2 ft. or more high, or sometimes smaller; 
leaves from oblong to linear- lanceolate; racemes numerous, usually geminate; the tri- 


angular nutlets armed with prickles on the margins; limb of the rotate corolla 2 to 5 
lines in diameter, blue, rarely white. 


Chiefly distinguished from the preceding by the broad large leaves, the bractless 
racemes and the nutlets clothed over the whole back with stout barbed prickles. 

1. C. grande, Dougl. About 2 ft. high, pubescence soft; radical and lower stem 
leaves ovate oblong, usually rounded or cordate at the base, long petioled; panicled 
racemes or cymes small, on a long naked tprminal peduncle; corolla tube exceeding the 
calyx; its limb blue to violet, with usually purple crests; 3 to 5 lines wide. 


Structure of the minute white flowers similar to the preceding; nutlets widely spread- 
ing in pairs, horizontal, oblong or almost linear, surrounded by an incurved wing-like 
border which is toothed, the apex beset with hooked bristles. 

1. P. penicillata, A. DC. Very slender, diS"usely branching, spreading, with nar- 
row linear leaves, and small flowers scattered the whole length of the stem, on very short 
pedicels; nutlets only a line long. 


Herbs, usually twining or trailing, with alternate leaves (or scales) and regular perfect 
flowers; the stamens as many as the lobes or angles of the corolla and alternate with 
them (5, rarely 4); the free persistent calyx of mostly distinct imbricated sepals; ovary 
2-3-celled; capsules generally globular; seeds 1 to 4. Inflorescence axillary. 

Corolla plaited in the bud; style single Convolvulus. 1 

Corolla 5-cleft; styles 2 Cressa. 2 

Twining parasites, leafless, yellowish Cuscuta. 3 


Corolla campanulate or short and open funnel-form, with a 5-angulate or obscurely 
5-lobed border, deeply plaited down the sinuses in the bud. Stamens included. Stj la 
filiform; stigmas 2, in ours flat, from linear to oval. (See Addenda!) 

* A pair of bracts close to the calyx, enveloping it. 
1. C. Soldauella, L. Maritime, low, smooth; stems a foot or less in length, trail- 
ing; leaves reniform entire or obscurely angulate-lobed, an inch or two broad, long 
petioled; corolla pink, purplish, or nearly white. 


2. C. occidentalis, Gr. Mostly smooth; stems twining several feet high; leaves 
from broadly ovate-triangular with a deep and narrow basal sinus to narrowly lanceolate- 
hastate; the posterior lobes often 1-2- toothed; peduncle elongated, not rarely 2-flowered 
within the bracts; these ovate or rarely oblong, commonly surpassing the enclosed calyx; 
corolla white or pinkish, 1 to 1 J inches broad; stigmas linear. 

3. C. Califomicus, Choi. Minutely and rather densely pubescent, a span or less 
high, or with trailing stems a foot long; leaves from ovate or obovate and obscurely 
hastate to triangular-hastate, the basal lobes sometimes 1-2-toothed, long-petioled; pe- 
duncles shorter than the petiole; bracts oblong or oval, about equaling the sepals, or 
Bhorter; corolla white, cream-color or flesh-color, IJ to 2 inches long. 

4. C. villosus, Gr. Densely silky- villous or woolly; corolla cream colored, an inch 

* * No cahjx-UJce bracts; sometimes a 'pair of leaves close under the fiower or a i^air of 
bracts at some distance below it. 

5. C. luteolus, Gr. Stems twining several feet long; leaves triangular-hastate or 
sagittate, the basal lobes sometimes 2-lobed; peduncles bearing a pair of linear or lan- 
ceolate entire bracts, a little below the flower; a second flower occasionally from the 
axil of one of them; corolla pale yellow or purplish, an inch or more in length; stigmas 

2. CRESSA, L. 

Corolla deeply 5-cleft; the oblong or ovate lobes more than half the length of the 
somewhat campanulate tube. Stamens and the 2 distinct styles exserted. Stigmas 

1. C. Cretica, L. A span or two high, silky-villous and hoary ; leaves very 
numerous, 2 to 4 lines long, almost sessile; flowers sessile or nearly so in the upper axils; 
corolla 2 or 3 lines long, white. — On saline or alkaline soil. 

3. CUSCUTA, Tourn. Dodder. 

Calyx 5-4-cleft or parted. Corolla campanulate or short-tubular, the spreading limb 
5-4-parted. Styles in our species 2, distinct. Seeds germinating in the soil, but the 
thread-like, branching, leafless, yellowish or reddish twining stems becoming j)arasitic on 
the bark of hei'bs or small shrubs; being attached by means of suckers. Flowers small, 
cymose or densely clustered, white or whitish. 

* Capsule depressed-globose. 

1. C. Califomica, Choisy. Flowers pedicelled in loose few-flowered cymes; lobes of 
the calyx acute; lobes of the corolla lanceolate-subulate, delicate white; no scales below 
the stamens. 

Var. breviflora, Engel. Flowers scarcely over a line long; calyx lobes equaling the 


Var. longiloba, Engel. Flowers 1^ to 2i lines long; calyx-lobes often with recurved 
tips; capsule mostly only 1 -seeded, enveloped by the withered corolla. 

* * Capsule pointed, capped or enveloped by the withered corolla. 

2. C. salina, Engel. Flowers IJ to 2i lines long delicate white; corolla lobes often 
overlapping, denticulate; capsule siirrounded but not capped by the corolla, usually 
1-seeded. — Growing in saline marshes, usually on Salicornia. 

3. C. subinclusa, Dur. & Hilg. Flowers sessile or nearly so (at length in large 
clusters), 2^ to 4 lines long; lobes of the corolla short, the tube somewhat urn-shaped, 
only partly covered by the fleshy, usually reddish calyx. — The most common species 
growing on coarse herbs and shrubs. 

Oeder 42. SOIiANACEiE. 

Herbs or shrubs, with alternate leaves and no stipules, regular 5-merous flowers on 
bractless pedicels, a single style and a 2-celled ovary; the fruit a many-seeded berry or 

Corolla rotate; fruit a berry Solanum. 1 

Corolla funnel-form; capsule large, spiny Datura. 2 

Corolla funnel-form; capsule smooth Nicotiana. 3 

1. SOLANUM, Toum. 

Lobes of the corolla valvate in the bud. Filaments short; anthers usually conniving. 
Style elongated. (See Addexda. ) 

* Corolla sviall, white ; deeply 5-cleft, 

1. S. uignim, L. (Black Xightshade. ). Widely branching; leaves usually ovate 
and sinuate toothed; flowers in umbellate clusters; berries black. Variable. 

Var. Dougiasii, Gr. Leaves apt to be coarsely toothed; flowers sometimes half an 
inch broad. 

* * Corolla large, blue, 5-angled. 

2. S. umbelliferum, Esch, Somewhat shrubby; flowers in umbel-like clusters, 
violet-blue to rarely white, about 9 lines broad. — A variable species similar to S. Xanti 
(which is less shrubby and has larger flowers), a common species farther south. 

2. DATURA, L. Strai^ionium. 

Calyx prismatic, partly deciduous. Corolla with ample 5-pointed limb. Style long; 
stigma 2-lipped. Capsule spiny. 

1. D. Stramonium, L. Smooth, green; corolla white, about 3 inches long; cap- 
sule beset with short stout prickles, the lower shorter. 

SOLANACE^. (potato FAMILY.) 88a 

Corolla rotate; fruit a berry Solanum. 1 

Corolla funnel-form; capsule large, spiny Datura. 2 

Corolla funnel-form; capsule smooth Nicotiana. 3 

1. SOLANUM, Tourn. 

Lobes of the corolla valvate in the bud. Filaments short; anthers usually conniving. 
Style elongated. 

* Corolla small white; deeply 5-defL 

1. S. nigrum, L. (Black Nightshade.) Widely branching; leaves usually ovate 
and sinuate toothed; flowers in umbellate clusters; berries black. "Variable. 

Var. Douglasii, Gr. Leaves apt to be coarsely toothed; flowers sometimes half an 
inch broad. 

* * Corolla large, blue, 5-angled. 

2. S. umbelliferum, Esch. Somewhat shrubby; flowers in umbel-like clusters, 
violet-blue to rarely white, about 9 lines broad, A variable species similar to S. Xantiy 
which is less shrubby and has larger flowers, a common species farther south. 

2. DATURA, L. Stramonium. 
Calyx prismatic, partly deciduous. Corolla with ample 5-pointed limb. Style long; 
stigma 2-lipped. Capsule spiny. 

1. D. Stramonium, L. Smooth, green; corolla white, about 3 inches long; cap- 
sule beset with short, stout prickles, the lower shorter. 

2. D. Tatula, L. Stem reddish-purple; corolla pale violet; prickles about equal. 

3. D. quercifolia, HBK. Green; corolla violet-tinged; prickles flattened, unequal, 
some an iuch long. — Lower E.ussian Kiver. 

3. NICOTIANA, Tourn. Tobacco. 
Calyx campanulate or oblong, persistent. Corolla commonly funnel-form, the limb 
plaited. Style long; stigma capitate, somewhat 2-lobed. — Very viscid herbs. 

1. N. rustica, L. Leaves pelioled, ovate, or the lower slightly cordate; corolla 
short and broad, dull white, less than an inch long. 

2. N. Bigelovii, Wat. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, only the lower ones 
petioled, these scarcely exceeding 6 inches long; corolla nearly salver-form with tube 1^ 
inches long, the limb an inch or more wide, its lobes acute. 

3. N. attenuata, Torr. (Slender Tobacco.) Leaves petioled, the lower ovate or 
oblong, the upper lanceolate to linear lanceolate; calyx teeth short; corolla greenish 
white, salver-form, an inch or more long, and a half an inch or less across. Slender 
plants 3 or 4 feet high in cultivated ground. 

4. N. glauca, Graham. (Tobacco Tree.) A small tree, commonly cultivated; 
smooth, glaucous leaves long-petioled; tubular corolla greenish yellow, an inch or more 




A corolla more or less bilabiate, with the lobes imbricated in the bud; didynamous or 
diandrous stamens; a single style and a 2-celled ovary and capsule mark this large 
order. In Pentstemon there is a fifth rudimentary stamen. Verbascutn has five perfect 

Mimulus glutinosus. 

a. Ripe capsule of Mi- 
mulus luteus. b. The 
same seen edgewise burst- 
ing open. c. A cross 
section of the same, sIioav- 
ing the placenta; and 
seeds, d. Pistil of Mi- 
mulus luteus. e. Front 
view of one of the an- 
thei's. /. Back view ol 
the same. Above these are the stamens of Mi- 
mulus glutinosus united in xmirs. 

a. Single flower and bract of Pedicularis densi- 
flora (galea flattened laterally, the pistil jjrotrud- 
ing; tlie lower lip of 3 small lobes, 2 of which 
are shown). b. A single flower of Castilleia. 

c. Single flower of Orthocarpus purpurascens. 

d. Front view of the same, with calyx removed. 
The lower lip (anterior or front jjart of the 
flower) 3-lobed, the galea beaked and surpassing 
the stigma. 

This large order, numbering nearly 2,000 species, is remarkable for the great beauty of 
its flowers, and for the impartial distribution of its species over the whole world. Over 
300 species, belonging to 87 genera, are natives of the United States. About 75 species 
grow east of the Mississippi, and about 100 west of the Sierra Nevada in this State. The 


most important American genera are Pentstemon, 75 species, found, with one exception, 
only in North America, and mostly within the limits of the United States between the 
Hocky Mountains ajad the Sierra Nevada; Mimulus, represented in other countries, but 
most largely in North America, where there are 30 species, about two thirds of which 
grow in California, west of the Sierra Nevada, only 2 species reaching the Atlantic 
States; Orthocarpus, 24 species, all North American, except one, and west of the 
Mississippi, IG belonging to California; Gerardia, 24 species, mostly in the Atlantic 
States, and none reaching the Rocky Mountains; Castilleia, 23 species, 2 Asiatic, 3 in the 
Atlantic States, and 8 or 9 in California; Pedicularis, a large genus, mostly in the arctic 
regions and on high mountains of the temperate zone, 28 American species; CoUinsia, 15 
species, all Califomian, except two, which grow in the Mississippi Valley. Several 
showy species of shrubby Veronicas are cultivated. This large genu?, numbering 40 
species in New Zealand alone, is represented in the United States by only a few obscure 
herbs. Digitalis, commonly cultivated under the name of Foxglove, has run wild about 
Humboldt Bay and in the Willamette Valley. 

Many plants belonging to the genera Pentstemon, Collinsia, and Mimulus are culti- 
vated on account of their beautiful flowers. Pentstemons are mostly confined to hilly or 
mountainous districts. CoUinsias grow everjrwhere. Most species of Mimulus prefer 
moist places, but the only shrubby species, M. glutlnosus, grows on dry, rocky hillsides. 

Two species of Verbascum {Mullein) are found in the State, but probably not within our limits; V, 
Thajians, L., with woolly decurrent leaves and V. virgatum. Withe., distinguished by nearly smooth not 
decurreut leaves and violet bearded filaments. 

* Leaves mostly alternate; corolla personate. 

Corolla spurred at base Linaria. 1 

Corolla gibbous at base Antirrhinum. 2 

* * Leaves opposite or whorled. 
Corolla erect, the anterior lobe reflexed, the other 4 erect, a scale in the throat on 

the upper side Scrophularia. 3 

Corolla declined, the middle lower lobe infolding the stamens and style . . . Collinsia. 4 

CaroUa with a fifth sterile filament on the upper side Pentstemon. 5 

Stigma 2-hpped or disk-like Mimulus. 6 

* * * Corolla rotate or short-campanulate. 

Calyx 5-toothed; corolla campanulate Limosella. 7 

Calyx 4-parted; corolla 4-lobed, rotate Veronica. 8 

* * * * Corolla tubular; the ujiper Up erect or incurved, laterally compressed, usually en- 
closing the ascending stamens. 

Corolla narrow with almost obsolete lower lip Castilleia. 9 

Corolla with saccate lower lip of 3 lobes Orthocarpus. 10 


Lips of corolla, both short; the lower 3-crenulate Cordylanthus. 11 

Upper lip of the corolla arched; many large radical leaves Pedicularis. 12 

1, LINARIA, Tourn. 

Calyx 5-parted. Corolla with the throat nearly closed; the base in front (below) pro- 
longed into a spur. 

1. L. Canadensis, Dum. (Toad Flax.) Smooth; leaves linear, alternate on the 
erect flowering stems, but smaller and broader ones often opposite or whorled on the 
procumbent shoots; flowers blue in a terminal raceme. 

2. ANTIRRHINUM, Tourn. Snapdeagon. 

Like Linaria, except that the corolla has a saccate protuberance instead of a spur. Lj 
ours the upper lip is spreading and the lower lobes deflexed. 

1. A. glandulosum, Lindl. Glandular and viscid; leaves lanceolate, mostly sessile; 
flowers in a dense spike or raceme, half an inch or more long, jjink with yellowish 

2. A. vagans, Gr. Very diffuse, often glandular, branchlets frequently prehensile; 
leaves short, lanceolate to ovate; flowers scattered, purplish blue, half an inch long. 

Var. Bolanderi, Gr. Has broader and thinner leaves, those on the prehensile branch- 
lets orbicular. 

3. A. Bre-weri, Gr. Has smaller flowers, only 3 lines long; style strongly deflexed. 

3. SCROPHULARIA, Tourn. Figwort. 

Calyx deeply 5-cleft, the lobes broad. Corolla short, with an oblong tube unequally 
5-lobed, 4 erect, the two upper the longer. Stamens 4, inserted in pairs, low down on 
the corolla tube, a rudiment of the fifth stamen in the form of a scale above. Coarse 
herbs, with inconspicuous flowers. 

1. S. Californica, Cham. Nearly smooth, 2 to 6 ft. high, with deltoid or truncate- 
ovate doubly toothed opposite leaves; flowers small greenish or lurid red (rarely yellow) 
in a terminal thyrsus. 

4. COLLINSIA, Nutt. 

Calyx deeply 5-cleft. Corolla with the tube gibbous or saccate on the upper side, 
commonly declined, conspicuously bilabiate; the upper lip 2-cleft, and its lobes recurv- 
ing; tlie lower 3-lobed and larger, its side lobes pendulous-spreading, the middle one 
folded into a keel-shaped sac and including the declined stamens and style. Stamens in 
pairs, with long filaments, anthers round-reniform. A gland at the base of the corolla on 
the upper side answers to the fifth stamen. — Beautiful annuals with simple opposite or 
whorled leaves, all but the lower sessile; pedicels solitary or whorled in the axils of leaves 
which diminish to small bracts above. 


* Floiuers short-j^edlceled or nearly sessile, verticillate. 

1. C. bicolor, Bentb. A foot or more high; leaves oblong-lanceolate, the upper 
usually ovate-lanceolate and sessile by a nervose veined base; pedicels shorter than the 
acute lobes of the calyx; the lower lip or the corolla violet or rose-purple and the upper 
paler to nearly white; the saccate throat very oblique to the true tube, fully as broad as 
long; gland short. — The most showy species, with flowers nearly an inch Icno-. 

2. C. tinctoria, Hartw. Foliage, etc., like the preceding; generally more viscid - 
pubescent; flowers almost sessile; corolla yellowish, cream-color, or white, usually with 
purple dots or lines; upper lip very short. — East side of Sacramento Valley. 

3. C. bartsiaefolia, Benth. -Fuberulent and somewhat glandular; leaves from ovate^ 
oblong to linear; flower-whorls 2 to 5, rarely only one; the lateral lobes of the lower lip 
emarginate or obcordate; gland elongated. Flowers nearly as large as the preceding, 
purplish, pale violet, or wliitish; upper lip with a transverse callosity at the origin of tha 

4. C, Greenei, Gr. Upper lip of the violet purple corolla about half the length oi 
the lower, crested below with a pair of callous teeth on each side connected by a ridge. 
Corolla 5 lines long. — Lake County. 

* * Flowers on slender pedicels, soUtartf or umhellate-whorled. 

6. C. sparsiflora, Fisch. & Mey. Slender; upper leaves linear-oblong or linear- 
lanceolate, merely opposite or the upper minute floral bracts in threes; pedicels solitary 
in the axils, longer or shorter than the flower which is 4 to 8 lines long; corolla mostly 
violet; the upper lip and the middle lobe of the lower conmionly yellowish and purple- 
dotted; calyx usually XDurple-tinged. 

7. C. parviilora, Dougl. Low, at length difi'use about a span high; the blue, or 
partly white flowers solitary or 2 to 5 in a whorl, 2 to 4 lines long; stigma cleft, gland- 
capitate, short-stipitate. 

5. PENTSTEMON, Mitch. 
Calyx 5-parted. Corolla w^ith a conspicuous mostly elongated or ventricose tube; the 
limb more or less bilabiate; upper lip 2-lobed; the lower 3-cleft, recurved or spreading. — 
The conspicuous sterile filament strongly marks the genus, remarkable for its many beau- 
tiful species. (See Addenda. ) 

1. P. Menziesii, Hook. Tufted at the woody base, a span to a foot high; leaves oval 
or ovate, a half to an inch long; corolla about an inch long, pink-red; anthers with the 
diverging cells long- woolly. Mt. St. Helena, Mrs. M. L. Swett. 

2. P. corymbosus, Benth. A foot or two high, soft-pubescent or nearly smooth, 
leafy to the tip; corolla scarlet, an inch long; anthers smooth; steril filament, bearded 
down one side. 

3. P. breviflorus, Lindl. 3 to 6 ft. high, with long, slender, flowering branches; 
corolla yellowish with flesh-color, striped within with pink, about half an inch long; the 
Upper lip beset with long viscid hairs; sterile filament naked. 


4. P. Lemmoni, Gr. Is smaller and may be distinguished from the last by its 
yellow bearded sterile filament. 

6. P. heterophyllus, Lindl. Stems 1 to 5 ft. high from a woody base; leaves lan- 
ceolate or linear; corolla an inch or more in length, ventricose, rose-purple or pmk chang- 
ing to violet, an inch or more in length. Difficult to distinguish from the next. — Coast 

6. P. azureus, Benth. Usually smaller than the last; the larger corolla azure blue 
changing to violet; the base sometimes reddish; the expanded limb sometimes an inch 
broad. — Sierra Nevada. 


Calyx mostly plicately o-angled. Corolla funnel-form, with the included or rarely 
exserted tube bilabiately 5-lobed; the lobes roundish, more or less spreading or the 
upper turned back; a pair of ridges running down the lower side of the throat. The 
anthers often approximate in pairs, their cells divergent. The lobes of the stigma com- 
monly petaloid-dilated or peltate-funnelform. — Flowers axillary on simple peduncles; 
commonly showy. 

1. M. tricolor, LindL Stem, when beginning to flower, only a quarter of an inch 
high, at length 3 inches. Corolla about 1| inches long, with a long exserted slender 
tube, a short funnelform throat, and similar nearly equal lobes; innk; with a crimson 
Bpot on the base of each lobe, a yellow stain along the lower lip. Leaves sessile. 

2. M. Douglasii, Gr. Similar to the last; leaves contracted into a petiole; lower 
lip of the corolla much shorter than the erect upper one or even obsolete; the throat 
more ample. Stem from a ^ to 6 inches high. 

3. M. giutinosus, Wendl. A brittle-stemmed shrub, 2 to 6 ft. high, with thick 
glutinous-sticky leaves and mostly buflF or salmon-colored flowers, but running into 
varieties with red, red-brown, or scarlet flowers. 

4. M. cardinalis, Dougl. Villous, v/ith viscid hairs; the large leaves ovate, the 
upper often connate; corolla frequently 2 inches long; the tube hardly exceeding the long 
calyx, the limb very oblique, scarlet. — Along water courses. 

5. M. luteus, L. Mostl}'- smooth, varying greatly in size from a foot to even 4, ft. 
high; leaves ovate oval or cordate; corolla deep yellow, usually spotted A^-ithin, and 
the base of the lower lip blotched with brown-purple, from 1 to 2 inches long. Moist 

6. M. inconspicuus, Gr. Smooth, 2 to 7 inches high; the ovate or lanceolate 
leaves sessile, a half inch or less long; corolla 5 lines long, yellow or rose-color; calyx 
teeth very short. 

7. M. moschatus, Dougl. (Musk Plant.) Very villous and usually musk-scented; 
stems spreading and creeping; flowers yellow. — Our form is chiefly 

Var. longiflorus, Gr., with very clammy leaves and flowers an inch long, scarcely- 


8. M. pilosus, Wat. A span to a foot high, much branched, soft, villous and 
Blightly viscid, many flowered from near the base; leaves lanceolate to narrowly oblong, 
sessile, entire; calyx tube not prismatic; corolla yellow, obscurely bilabiate, 3 or 4 lines 
long, usually a pair of brown -purple spots on the lower lobe. 

7. LIMO SELLA, L. Mud wort. 

Calyx campanulate. Corolla rotate-campanulate, nearly regular. Style short; stigma 
thickish. — Diminutive annuals, with narrow fleshy leaves in clusters around the 1-flow- 
ered scapes. Flower small, white or purplish. 

1, L. aquatica, L. An inch to a span high, growing in brackish mud or in fresh 


The lower lobe and sometimes the lateral ones of the rotate corolla sometimes smaller 
than the others. Stamens 2, one on each side of the upper lobe of the corolla. Cap- 
sules compressed. Flowers small (a line or two broad), in racemes or spikes, or solitary 
in the axils; blue, purplish, or white. 

1. V. Americana, Schw. Stems a span to two feet long; leaves ovate or oblong, 
serrate, rather succulent, short-petioled, an inch or two long, opposite. Flowers in axil- 
lary racemes, bluish, with purple stripes. Common in damp places. 

2. V. peregrina, L. A span or more high, all the upper leaves alternate, linear- 
oblong; flowers minute, in the axils of the leaves, and mostly narrow bracts; capsule 

9. CASTILLEIA, Mutis. Paixteb-Cup. 

Calyx tubular, more or less cleft in front or behind, or both; the lobes 2 and lateral, or 
4. Corolla tubular, laterally compressed, especially the long upper lip (galea) ; the lowei* 
lip very short or minute, 3-toothed, and somewhat saccate below the short teeth; the 
tube usually inclosed in the calyx. Stamens 4, inclosed in the galea; anthers 2-celled, 
the long cells unequal, the outer fixed by the middle, the inner ones smaller, pendulous. 
Style long; the capitate stigma sometimes 2-lobed. Herbs, sometimes woody at the base, 
with mostly alternate, sessile leaves, tue floral ones or their tips, as well as the calyx 
lobes, commonly petaloid and colored red, yellow, or white. Flowers in terminal, simple, 
leafy spikes. 

1. C. afBnis, Hook. & Arn. Annual; a foot or two high; leaves narrowly lanceo- 
late, entire; the upper floral bracts usually broader, the apex toothed, red; spike Math 
scattered, frequently pedicellate flowers below; calyx red; an inch long, its front fissure 
hardly twice as deep as the back one, the narrow lobes acutely 2-cleft; corolla 1 to IJ 
inches long, exserted so as to expose the callous lip; the galea about equal to the tube, 
yellowish or tipped with red. 

2. C. latifolia, Hook. & Am. Perennial (as are all the following); branching from 


tlie base, 1 or 2 ft. liigh, villous-hirsute and viscid; leaves oval, obtuse, half an inch or 
more long, some above 3-5-lobed and red; calyx 2-cleft to the middle, the lobes entire or 
emarginate, almost equaling the corolla; corolla 8 lines long, the short teeth of the lip 

3. C. parviflora, Bong. A span to 2 ft. high, villous-hirsute above; leaves variously 
cleft into linear or lanceolate lobes, or sometimes the cauline are mainly entire and nar- 
row; calyx lobes oblong and 2-cleft at the apex or to below the middle; corolla an inch or 
less long; only the upper part of the narrow galea exserted — A variable species. As in 
the preceding species, the bracts and calyx are usually colored red or crimson, but some- 
times varying to yellow or even white. 

4. C. miniata, Dougl. Commonly 2 ft. high, strict, often slender; leaves lanceolate 
or linear-lanceolate, almost always entire, the broad floral ones of the close spike some- 
times incised or 3-cleft, usually bright red, rarely whitish; calyx lobes lanceolate, acutely 
2-cleft; corolla over an inch long, exserted, exposing the short ovate teeth of the lip. 

5. C. foliolosa, Hook. & Am. Densely white-woolly, the matted hairs loosened with 
age; many-stemmed from a woody base; leaves narrowly linear, an inch or less long, 
crowded below and fascicled in the axils. 


Chiefly distinguished from Castilleia by the upper lip of the corolla (galea) which but 
little, if at all, surpasses the usually more conspicuous and inflated 1-3-saccate lower 

§ 1. C.ASTiLLEioiDES, Gr. — Lower Up of the corolla simply or somewhat triply saccate, and 
hearing 3 conspicuous teeth; the galea hroadish or narrow; stigma capitate; anthers all 
2-celled; bracts with colored tips. 

* Filaments smooth; galea straight or nearly so, naked, narrow; the lip moderately 

ventricose; its teeth erect. 

1. O. attenuatus, Gr. Slender, strict, a span or two high, mostly simple; leaves 
linear and attenuate, often with a pair of filiform lobes; spike slender; lower flowers 
Bcattered; bracts with slender lobes barely white-tipped; corolla narrow, half an inch 
long, white or whitish; narrow teeth of the purple-spotted lip nearly equaling the galea. 

2. O. densiflorus, Benth. Erect or diSusely branched from the base 6 to 12 inches 
high; spike dense, many flowered, at length cylindrical, or lowest flowers rather distant; 
bracts 3-cleft, about equaling the flowers, their linear lobes purple and white; corolla 
from 8 to 12 lines long, the tips usually purplish, the teeth of the lip shorter than the 

3. O. castilleioides, Benth. At length difi'use and corymbosely branched ; leaves from 
lanceolate to oblong, usually laciniate; the upper and the bracts cuneate-dilated and 
incisely cleft, green or the obtuse tips w^hitish or yellowish; spikes dense, short and thick: 
corolla nearly an inch long, dull white or purplish- tipped; lip ventricose-dilated. 


* * Filaments pubescent ; galea densely red-bearded ; the obtuse tip incurved. 

4. O. purpurascens, Bentli. Bracts and corolla usually crimson to rose-color. 
Distinguished by the bearded, hooked galea, and large stigma. 

§ 2. TriphysaPwIA, Benth. — Lower Up of the corolla conspicuously 3-saccate, and very much 
larger than the slender galea, its teeth small, the tube filiform; stigma capitate, some- 
times 2-lobed; bracts like the leaves and not colored. 

5. O. pusillus, Benth. Small and weak or diffuse, branched from the base, 3 or 4 
inches high; leaves 1-2-pinnatifid, and bracts 3-5-parted into filiform divisions; flowers 
scattered, inconspicuous, shorter than the bracts; corolla purplish, 2 or 3 lines long; lip 
moderately 3-lobed; galea soon exposing the stamens. 

6. O. floribundus, Benth. Slender, erect, 4 to 12 inches high; spike many-flowered, 
dense above; corolla white or cream-color, half an inch long; the tube twice the length 
of the calyx; stamens about the length of the soon open galea; the lip with 3 divergent 
oval sacs, their scarious teeth erect. 

7. O. erianthus, Benth. Erect, a span or more high, much branched, pubescent; 
corolla sulphur-yellow, with the slightly falcate galea brown-purple; tube 6 to 8 lines 
long, filiform, densely pubescent, thrice the length of the calyx; the lip of 3 globular- 
inflated sacs, 1 to 2 lines long; the galea subulate, inclosing the stamens more strictly 
than the preceding. 

Var. roseus, Gr. Corolla rose-purple, shorter. 

8. O. faucibarbatus, Gr. Nearly smooth, less branched, and leaves with coarser 
divisions than the last; corolla with smaller sacs and less beard within the lip; the 
straight galea pale. 

9. O. lithospermoides, Benth. Hirsute above; stem 4 to 12 inches high, strict, 
mostly simple, very leafy; bracts of the dense many-flowered spike about equaling the 
flowers; corolla an inch or less long, cream-color, often turning pale rose-color; sacs 3 
lines deep; the teeth inconspicuous; anthers 2-celled. 


Calyx of an anterior and a posterior leaf-like division> or the former wanting. Corolla 
tubular, -a little enlarging upward; the lips short and of nearly equal length; the lower 
very obtusely and crenulately 3-toothed; the upper straight and compressed, with the 
apex incurved. Style mostly hooked at the tip. — Branching annuals with alternate nar- 
row leaves either entire or 3-5-parted; the floral ones not brightly colored. Flowers one 
to each bract, dull-colored, yellowdsh or purplish; the corolla not much exceeding the 

§1. Adenostegia, Gr. — Calyx 2-leaved; flowers short 2)ediceled or 7iearly sessile, sub- 

tended by 2 to 4 bractlefs; floral leaves and bracts tipped with a gland. 
1. C. filifolius, Nutt. A foot or two high; leaves filiform; the lower entire, the 


upper 3-5-parted, the floral with cuneate base and ciliate margins; corolla purplish, G ta 
9 lines long. 

2. C. pilosus, Gr. Larger, soft- villous and hoary; the floral leaves 3-toothed at the 
tip; corolla yellowish with some purple, less than an inch long. 

§ 2. Hemistegia, Gr. — Calyx 1-leavedj powers without hractlets, each sessile in the axil 
of a claspiny bract; no glands at the tips of the leaves. 

3. C. maritimus, Nutt. Leaves smooth, somewhat fleshy, all entire; flowers in a 
capitate spike; corolla dull-purplish; pairs of filaments very unequal. — Li salt marshes. 

4. C. mollis, Gr. Stamens only 2, with smooth filaments; the upper leaves toothed 
or pinnatifid. — Salt marshes. 

12. PEDICULARIS, Tourn. 

Calyx 2-5-toothed, irregular. Corolla strongly bilabiate; the galea arched and laterally 
compressed; the lip 2-crested above, 3-lobed. Stamens 4, inclosed in the galea; anthers 
transverse, equally 2-celled. 

1. P. densiflora, Benth. Nearly smooth, stout, becoming a foot or more high; 
leaves broad -lanceolate in outline, twice-pinnatifid or pinnately parted, and the divisions 
irregularly and sharply incised or toothed; the upper bracts of the dense elongated spike 
or raceme simpler; calyx-teeth, 5; corolla red or scarlet. 


Root-parasitic herbs, destitute of leaves and green color. Distinguished from Seraph' 
ulariacecB by the 1-celled ovary. 

1. APHYLLON, Mitch. 

Calyx 5-cleft, or 5-parted, regular or nearly so. Corolla tubular and curved, almost 
retmlar, or bilabiate. Stamens included; cells of the anthers deeply separated from below 
upward, mucronate at base. Stigma peltate or bilamellar. — Low pale orbrownisli herbs j 
the flowers yellowish or purplish. 

* Scapes or peduncles naked; corolla with an almost regular 5-lobed border. 

1. A. uniflonim, Gr. Coralla about an inch long, bluish purple, violet-scented. 

2. A. fasciculatum, Gr. Scaly stem rising out of the ground 2 or 3 inches, bearing 
many peduncles; lobes of the calyx not longer than the tube; flowers dull yellow or 

* Stems rising above the ground; flowers bracteate; corolla plainly bilabiate. 

3. A. comosum, Gr. Low, branching at or near the surface of the ground; flowers 

LABIATE. (mint family.) 97 

on slender pedicles in a corymb or short raceme; corolla rose-purple or purple, an inch 
or more long, or twice the length of the deeply parted calyx; anthers woolly. 

4. A. Californicum, Gr. Flowers crowded in an oblong thyrsus or raceme; calyx 
lobes nearly equaling the tube of the yellowish or purplish corolla; anthers smooth or 
nearly so. 

5. A. tuberosum, G. Flowers small, sessile in a compact cluster; yellowish. 
Boschniakia strobilacea, Gr., if found may be known by its resemblance to a spruce cone, 3 or 4 

inches long, the flowers striped with white and brownish red; scale-like bracts brown. 

Order 45. LABIATiE. 

Chiefly aromatic herbs with square stems, opposite simple leaves, and no stipules, 
bilabiate corolla, didynamous or diandrous stamens, and a 4-lobed ovary with a single 
style, forming seed-like nutlets in the bottom of the persistent calyx. — Flowers perfect, 
axillary. Calyx 3-5-toothed or cleft, or bilabiate. Stamens on the tubes of the corolla. 
Style, 2-cleft at the apex; often unequally so, or one of the lobes obsolete; stigmas 

Tribe 1. SATUREIB-SI. Stamens erect or ascending; the posterior pair shorter 
or -wanting; anthers 2-celled, and the short lobes never far separated, sometimes partly 
confluent but not blended. Upper lip of the corolla never hooded; all the lobes flat or 
nearly so. 

* The small corolla about equally 4-lohed; tube naked within. 

Stamens 4, nearly equal Mentha. 1 

Stamens 2, with anthers; posterior pair sterile or wanting Lycopus. 2 

* * Corolla bilabiate; no hairy ring within the base of the tube. 
4- Calyx about equally 5-toothed and iS-nerved; style beardless. 
Flowers glomerate-capitate. Stamens 4, straight. 

Stamens distant and divergent Py cnanthemum. 3 

Stamens exserted Monardella. 4 

Flowers solitary or clustered in the axils. 
Stamens 4, curving, shorter than the corolla Micromeria, 5 

-i- -i- Calyx unequally and deeply 5-cleft, mostly 15-nerved; style bearded above. 
Stamens 4, sometimes the upper pair sterile Pogogyne. 6 

* * * Corolla not manifestly bilabiate; a hairy ring at the base of the tube within. 
Shrubby. Flowers large, campanulate Sphacele. 7 

Tribe 2. Monardeje. Stamens only 2, fertile, the upper pair rudimentary or want- 
ing; anthers apparently or really of a single linear-oblong cell, or of 2 cells widely sep- 
arated upon the ends of a filament-like coimective. 

98 LABIATE. (mint FAMILY.) 

Connective longer than tlie filament itself, which it strides, a narrow anther- 
cell at its upper end, a smaller one or a long process at the lower Salvia. 8 

Connective much shorter than the slender filament and continuous or barely- 
articulated with its apex, or apparently none; anther 1-celled, no rudi- 
ment of the second cell below Audibertia. 9 

Tribe 3. Stachyde^. Stamens 4, with anthers, ascending and parallel under the 
concave or galeate upper lip of the corolla. Calyx 5-10-nerved. Herbage less aromatic 
than the preceding tribes. 

Calj'^x with a projection on the upper side, casque-shaped Scutellaria. 10 

Calyx bilabiate. Filaments 2-forked, one fork bearing the anther Brunella. 11 

Calyx 5-10-nerved, nearly equally 5-toothed Stachys. 12 

Tribe 4. AjUGorDEJE. Stamens parallel, and jjrotruding from the cleft on the upper 
side of the corolla; the anterior longer. 
Corolla with 5 similar oblong lobes Trichostema. 13 

1. MENTHA, L. Mint. 

CaljT^x about equally 5-toothed. Corolla with a short included tube, and a campanulate 
border; the upper lobe broadest, entire or emarginate. Odorous herbs, with very small 
flowers in dense clusters forming an apparent whorl in the axils or spikate at the tops of 
the branches. 

1. M. Canadensis, L. Leaves from oblong-ovate to almost lanceolate, sharply ser- 
rate, acute, short-petioled; flowers all in axillary clusters, whitish or purplish. 

2. LYCOPUS, Toum. Water Horehound. 

Chiefly distinguished from Mentha by the stamens. Flowers white, in false whorla. 
1, L. lucidus, Turcz., var. Americanus, Gr. The subterranean runners producing 
tubers; leaves lanceolate, 2 to 4 inches long, coarsely serrate, sessile or nearly so. 


Corolla short, with tube hardly exceeding the calyx. Anther-cells close and paralleL 
Perennial erect herbs with small flowers. 

1. P. Califomicum, Torr. About 2 feet high, corymbosely branched, sweet-odor- 
ous, whitened with soft pubescence, or in age smoothish : leaves from ovate to ovate-lan- 
ceolate, closely sessile by a slightly cordate or roundish base, sparingly denticulate or 
entire; heads of flowers very dense at the summit, white- villous; flowers whitish. 

4. MONARDELLA, Benth. 

Markcii by the flowers compacted in terminal heads involucrate with bracts, flesh-color 
or purple. 

LABIATE. (mint FAMILY.) 99 

* Perennialf in tufts from a jyrocunibent and almost woody base. 

1. M. villosa, Benth. Soft-pubescent or \allous a foot or two high; leaves ovate, 
often with a few obtuse teeth, being 6 to 10 lines long, petioled. Sometimes nearly 

* * Annual; leaves entire or undulate. 

2. M. undulata, Benth. A span to a foot or more high; leaves from oblong 
Bpatulate to nearly linear with a narrowed base, obtuse, undulate-margined, about an inch 
long; bracts and calyx villous; corolla rose-color. Has the odor of Peppermint. 

3. M. Breweri, Gr. A span or more high; leaves oblong or ovate, pinnately veined, 
the larger an inch long; bracts broadly ovate, cuspidate, whitish-scarious, the outer 
pinnately and the inner nervosely 7-9-ribbed; corolla rose-purple. 

4. M. Douglasii, Benth. Loosely branched; leaves lanceolate, an inch long, taper- 
ing into the petiole; the silvery white or purple-tinged bracts mostly transparent, with a 
Btrong marginal vein connected with the midrib by pinnate veins. — Strong-scented; co- 
rolla deep rose-color. 

5. MICROMERIA, Benth. 

Calyx not gibbous. Corolla short; upper lip erect, flattish, entire or emarginate; 
lower spreading, 3-parted. — Low plants, sweet-odorous, with small axillary flowers. 

1. M. Douglasii, Benth. Yeeea Buena. Perennial herb, with long slender creep- 
ing and trailing stems; leaves round-ovate, thin, sparingly toothed, short petioled, an 
inch long or less; flowers mostly solitary on a long filiform 2-bracteolate peduncle; co- 
rolla purj)lish or white, 4 lines long. 

2. M. purpurea, Gr. Erect, much branched; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, sparsely 
eerrate; flowers in umbel-like clusters; corolla purple-blue, 2 lines long. 

6. POGOGYNE, Benth. 

Calyx cleft to below the middle; the 2 lower teeth longer; corolla straight, tubulaj^ 
funnelform, with short lips; the erect and entire upper lip and the tliree lobes of the 
spreading lower one oval and somewhat alike. Stamens with the upper shorter pair 
Bometimes sterile; the anther cells parallel and pointless. Style somewhat exserted, 
bearded above. — Low annuals, sweet-aromatic; with oblong or oblanceolated leaves nar- 
rowed into a petiole; flowers mostly crowded and interrupted spicate; bracts and calyx 
hirsute-ciliate; the corolla blue or purplish. 

* Stamens all four with anthers; style conspicuously bearded above, and its subulate lobes 
almost equal; corolla 6 to 9 lines long; flowers densely crotcded into an oblong cylindri- 
cal spike, which is conspicuously white-hirsute with the long, stiff, ciliate hairs of the 
1. P. Douglasii, Benth. Eather stout, a span to a foot high; leaves veiny, some- 


times sparingly toothed; bracts linear, acute; lower lobes of the calyx much longer thaa 
the others. 

2. P. parviflora, Benth. Smaller; bracts mostly obtuse; corolla 5 or 6 lines long. 

* * Upper stamens sterile; style sparingly hah-y, its lohes very unequal; Jiowers barely 2 Vaiea 


3. P. serp7lloides, Gr. Stems 3 to 6 inches high; leaves obovate-oval or spatulate, 
2 or 3 lines long; lower flowers remote and of ten solitary ; the upper usually interruptedly 

7. SPHACELB, Benth. 

Calyx thin, membranaceous and reticulated. Corolla with 5 broad, rather erect lobes, 
the lower one longest. Anther cells diverging. Somewhat shrubby, veiny-leaved. 

S. calycina, Benth. Villous-pubescent or tomentose, leafy, 2 to 5 ft. high; leaves 2 
to 4 inches long, ovate or oblong crenate or serrate, or almost entire; the floral, ovate- 
lanceolate, sessile; flowers an inch long, mostly solitary in the upper axils, purplish or 

8. SALVIA, L. Sage. 

Calyx bilabiate. Corolla deeply 2-lipped, the upper lip erect, straight or falcate, 
2-lobed, the lower spreading or drooping, its middle lobe sometinies notched or obcor- 
date. In our species the upper lip of the calyx is longer than the lower, 3-2-toothed; the 
lower 2-parted; the teeth spinulose; corolla ringent. 

1. S. carduacea, Benth. White-woolly with cobwebby hairs; stems nearly naked, 
surrounded at the base with thistle-like leaves; head-like false whoi-ls 1 to 4, an inch or 
more iu diameter, about equaling the involucre of spiny-toothed bracts; corolla 10 to 12 
lines long, blue or purple. 

2. S. Columbarias, Benth. (Chia.) Soft pubescent; flower whorls lor 2; in volu- 
crate bracts, sometimes purplish; corolla 3 or 4 lines long, blue; leaves not spinescent. 

9. AUDIBERTIA, Benth. 

Sufficiently distinguished from Salvia in the synopsis. — Mostly hoary perennials, her- 
baceous or shrubby; with rugose- veiny, crenulate, sage-like leaves, and densely capitate- 
glomerate flowers. 

1. A. grandiflora, Benth. Stems 1 to 3 feet high from a somewhat woody base; 
lower leaves 3 to 8 inches long; floral ones broadly ovate and membranaceous; corolla an 
inch and a half long; purple-crimson; stamens much exserted. 

2. A. humilis, Benth. A span high, cespitose; leaves mainly radical; spike of 3 or 
4 small, sessile, head-like clusters; corolla half an inch long or less, bluish purple. 

3. A. stachyoides, Benth. Shrubby, 3 to 8 feet high; style and stamens little 
exserted; corolla about as the last. 

LABIATE. (mint family.) 101 

10. SCUTELLARIA, L. Skullcap. 

Calyx, "with two entire lips and a gibbous projection on the back, closed after flower- 
ing. Corolla, with an elongated and curved ascending tube, a dilated throat, an erect 
arched or galeate upper lip, with which the lateral lobes appear to be connected; the 
anterior lobe appearing to form the whole lower lip. — Herbs, not aromatic; with single 
axillary, rather conspicuous flowers. 

1. S. augustjfolia, Pursh. A span to a foot high; leaves about an inch long; the 
radical ones often roundish or even cordate; corolla blue or violet, an inch long, with a 
Blender tube; lower lobe villous inside. — Ours is mainly 

Var. canescens, Gr. A form with soft, hoary pubescence, and the tube of the 
corolla bent so as to throw the upper part backward. 

2. S. Californioa, Gr. Puberulent; stems 8 to 20 inches high, slender; leaves 
from lanceolate-oblong to oval-ovate; the lower an inch or more long, often serrate; upper 
gradually reduced to half an inch or less; lips of the yellowish corolla about equal. 

3. S. tuberosa, Benth. Soft, pubescent or villous; stems slender, erect and short, 
or trailing a foot in length; the filiform subterranean shoots bearing tubers; leaves mostly 
ovate, coarsely and obtusely few-toothed or entire, 5 to 18 lines long; corolla deep blue 
or violet. 

11. BRUNELLA, Tourn. Self-heal. 

Calyx-lips closed in fruit. Corolla with ascending tube, open lips, and slightly-con- 
tracted orifice; upper lip arched and entire; lower 3-lobed, its middle lobe drooping, 
rounded, concave, denticulate. — Low perennials, the flowers crowded in a terminal ob- 
long or cylindraceous head or spike. 

1. B. vulgaris, L. A span to a foot or more in height; leaves ovate or oblong, slen- 
der-petioled; corolla violet, purple, or rarely white; calyx purplish. , 

12. STACHYS, L. 

Corolla with cylindrical tube not dilated at the throat; the upper lip erect and concave 
or arched; the lower spreading, its middle lobe larger. Stamens ascending under the 
upper lip; filaments naked; anthers approximate in pairs, 2-celled. — Herbs, not aro- 
matic, with flowers clustered, capitate, or scattered, often spicate at the end of the 
branches; flowers sessile or nearly so. 

* Corolla white or whitish; the vpper lip bearded or woolly on the bach; herbage tomentose 

or soft hairy. 
1. S. ajugoides, Benth. A span to a foot high; silky-villous with whitish hairs; 
leaves oblong, very obtuse, crenately serrate, 1 to 3 inches long, the upper sessile; flow- 
ers about 3 in the axils of the distant upper leaves, and loosely leafy-spicate at the sum< 
mit. — Moist ground. 


2. S, albens, G-r. Soft-tomentose with whitish wool, 3 to 5 ft. high; leaves mostly 
cordate at base, obtuse, crenate, 2 or 3 inches long; flowers several or many in capitate 
clusters which usually exceed the small floi'al leaves and form an interrupted spike; corolla 
white with purple dots on the lower lip. 

3. S. pycnantha, Benth. Very hirsute, with long and mostly soft spreading hairs, 
not white, two feet high or more; flowers in a dense cylindraceous naked spike (an inch 
or two long), exceeding the small bract-like floral leaves except in the lowest and some- 
times rather distant clusters; corolla white or cream-color, with purple on the lower lip. (?) 

* * Corolla purple, the upper Up hairy on the hack; pubescence somewhat hispid; notomentum. 

4. S. buUata, Benth. Stem retrorsely hispid, especially on the angles, 1 to 3 ft. 
high; leaves somewhat rugose, nearly all petioled, 1 to 2 inches long; flowers usually 6 in 
the false whorls, these rather distant, forming a narrow interrupted spike; lower lip of 
the corolla fully as long as the tube, 4 or 5 lines long, the upper half as long. — Variable. 

* * * Tube of the rose-red corolla twice as long as the calyx, G to 9 lines long. 

5. S. Chamissonis, Benth. Stem 2 to 5 ft. high, stout, mostly rough-hispid, with 
retrorse rigid bristles; leaves 2 to 5 inches long; lips of the corolla pubescent outside. — 
Wet ground. 

13. TRICHOSTEMA, L. Blue-curls. 

Calyx campanulate and almost equally 5-cleft. Corolla with short or slender tube and 
an almost equally 5-parted limb. Stamens with long capillary curved filaments, some- 
times cohering at the base. — Strong scented herbs; with entire leaves, and blue or purple 
corolla and stamens. In ours the flowers are in cymose axillary clusters, somewhat 
raceme-like in age; the corolla about 5 lines long, and the stamens twice as long or more. 

1. T. laxum, Gr. Minutely soft pubescent, about a foot high, simple or loosely 
branched from the base; leaves rather distant, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, tapering 
into a petiole at the base; flower clusters distinctly peduncled, usually forked and in 
age equaling the leaves; corolla almost smooth. 

2. T. lanceolatum, Benth. Leafy; leaves much longer than the internodes, lance- 
olate or ovate-lanceolate, sessile by a broad base, 3-5-nerved, an inch or less long; flower 
clusters nearly sessile, short, one-sided; corolla somewhat pubescent. — Its odor sicken- 
ing, tarry. 

Order 46. VERBENACEiE. 

Herbs or shrubs difi'ering from Labiatce mainly in the ovary and fruit, which is undi- 
vided and 2^-celled, at maturity either dry and splitting into as many 1-seeded nutlets, 
or drupaceous, containing as many little stones. 



Calyx 5-toothed, one tooth often shorter. Corolla salver-form, the limb unequally 
5-cleft. Stamens included, the upper pair sometimes sterile. Stigma unequally lobed. 
Ovary 4 -celled. — Herbs with small flowers, ours about 2 lines in diameter. 

1. V. officinalis, L. Some of the lower leaves pinnatifid; spikes mostly solitary, 
filiform; corolla purple or lilac, 2 or more lines in diameter. 

2. V. hastata, L. Stouter and taller, 3 to 6 ft. high; leaves serrate or incised, the 
lower hastate-3-lobed; spikes jpanicled, densely flowered; corolla blue, 2 lines in diameter. 

3. V. prostrata, E. Br. Soft hirsute, diSuse, a foot high; villous spikes long; 
corolla violet or blue. 

Order 47. PLANTAGINACE-ffi. 

Stemless herbs with flowers in spikes, the 4-cleft regular corolla dry and scarious. 

1. PLANTAGO, L. Plantain. 

Flowers m spikes or heads, bracteat'e. Calyx of 4 persistent sepals free from the ovary. 
Stamens 2 or 4 on the corolla alternate with its lobes, anthers versatile. Style filiform, 
bearded above. — Stemless herbs with nerved or ribbed radical leaves and naked scapes of 
small greenish flowers. 

* Flowers with 4 stamens. 

1. P. major, L. Mostly smooth; leaves ovate or broadly oblong, abruptly con- 
<a-acted into a channeled petiole, 5-7-ribbed; spike long and slender; capsule 7-16-seeded. 

2. P. liirtella, HBK. Leaves smooth, rather fleshy, oblanceolate to obovate, 3-7- 
ribbed, tapering into a narrow base or wing-margined petiole; scape 1 to 3 ft. high; 
flowers large. 

3. P. lanoeolata, L. Mostly hairy; leaves lanceolate, 3-5-ribbed; scape deeply 

4. P. maritima, L. Leaves linear, fleshy; scapes usually short. 

5. P. Patagonica, Jacq. Leaves linear to filiform, thin, usually silky- woolly. — Dry 

* * Flowers with 2 stamens. 

6. P Blgelovii Crr. Leaves linear; small. — Salt marshes. 




Twining shrubs or low herbs with perfect flowers, the conspicuous lurid calyx valvate 
in the bud and coherent with the 6-celled ovary, which forms a many-seeded 6-celled, 
pod or beriy in fruit. Stamens 6-12, more or less united with the style; anthers adnate, 
extrorse. Leaves petioled, mostly heart-shaped and entire. Grab's Manual. 


Calyx tubular, inflated above the ovary. Stamens 6, the sessile anthers adnate to the 
short stigma. 

1. A. Californica, Gr. (Pipe-Vine.) A twining shrub with large cordate leaves, 
flowers curved like a Dutch pipe, greenish, marked with brown or purple. 

2. ASARUM, Tourn. 

Calyx regular, 3-cleft or parted. Stamens 12, with more or less distinct filaments; 
their tips usually continued beyond the anther into a point. — Stemless herbs with creep- 
ing rootstocks, bearing 2 or 3 scales, then one or two leaves, and terminated by a short 
peduncled-flower close to the ground. 

1. A. caudatum, Lindl. (Wild Ginger.) The smooth broadly cordate loaves 
usually mottled with white; calyx bell-shaped, the acuminate lobes spreading, brownish 
purple. Common in forests; the flowers likely to be hidden under leaves. 


Herbs with mostly opposite and entire leaves, stems swollen at the joints, the tubular 
calyx corolla-like, its jjersistent base contracted, inclosing the 1-celled 1-seeded ovary, 
and becoming a sort of indehiscent pod. 

1. ABRONIA, Juss. 

Calyx salverform, with obcordate lobes. Stamens 5, included, adnate to the tube. 
Style included; stigma, capitate or clavate. Fruit o-winged. Embryo by abortion mono- 
cotyledonous, enfolding mealy albumen. Low herbs, with the opposite thick petioled 
leaves unequal, and the flowers in involucrate heads. Common on sandy sea beaches. 
A viscid exudation causes sand to stick to every part of the plants. 

1. A. latifolia, Esch. (Yellow Sand- Verbena. ) Root perennial; stems procum- 
bent; leaves very thick, sub-cordate to reniform, on thick petioles; flowers orange-yeb 
low, fragrant. 


2. A. umbellata, Lamb. (Pink Sand-Yerbena.) Annual; steins decumbent, leaves 
oblong or ovate, attenuate at base into slender jjetioles; flowers pink. 

3. A. maritima, Xutt. (Red Sand-Verbena.) Stouter than the last; leaves broader 
■with shorter petioles; involucral bracts ovate; flowers bright red. From Santa Barbara 

4. A. fragrans, Nutt, of the Columbia River, has white flowers. 

Five other species belonging to this western genus are found east of the Sierra Nevada. 

Order 50. POLYGONACE^. 

Herbs, with alternate entire leaves, and stipules in the fonn of sheaths, or obsolete, 
above the swollen joints of the stem; the flowers mostly perfect, with a more or less per- 
sistent calyx, a 1 -celled ovary, bearing 2 or 4 styles or stigmas, and a single seed. 
Stamens 4-12 inserted on the base of the 3-6-cleft calyx. 


Calyx 5 parted; the divisions petal-like, persistent in fruit, and surrounding the 
usually 3- angled akene. Stamens 3 to 8. Styles or stigmas 2 or 3. Herbs with small 
flowers oir jointed pedicels. 

Knot-weed or Yaid-grass and Smart-weed belong to this genus. About 20 species are 
found in California, of which 2 or 3 are probably introduced weeds. 

2. RUMEX, L. 

Calyx of 6 sepals; the three outer herbaceous, spi-eading in fruit; the three inner 
larger somewhat petaloid, covering the akene in fi-uit (then called valves), and often 
bearing grainlike appendages on the outside. Stamens 6. Styles 3; stigmas tufted. 
Introduced weeds with small greenish flowers crowded and whorled in panicled racemes. 

The Docks and Sheep-sorrel are examples of this genus. Of the dozen species on 
this coast, half are introduced weeds. 

3. ERIOGONUM, Michx. 

Flowers borne in a many-to-few-flowered calyx-like involucre of united bracts; the 
pedicels exserted, jointed to the flower, with bractlets at the base. Calyx corolla-like; 
6-parted or deeply 6-cleft. Stamens 9. Akene triangular. — Herbaceous or somewiiat 
woody plants, usually with a woolly or scurfy pubescence; the entire leaves without 
stipules and mostly radical; juice frequently acid. Over 80 species grow west of the 
Mississippi, of which 50 are Californian, mostly Alpine. 

Chorizavthe is a similar genus, in -whicli the involucres are 1-flowered and rigid. 

Orders AmaravtacecE and Clienojiodiacea are reprt sented by tiomely introduced ana native weeds. Many 
of the latter order belong to the genus Chenopodium, viz.. Goosejoot, Lamb's-quarters, rigioeea, Jerusalem 

106 PIPERACEJE. (pepper FAMILY.) 

Oak, Wormseed, etc. Salicornia (Glasswort) grows in salt marshes, and may be known by its fleshy leaf- 
less jointed stems, with opposite branches. The garden Beet belongs to this order. 

Order 51. PIPERACEiE. 

Herbs with jointed stems, alternate entire leaves and perfect flowers in spikes, en- 
tirely destitute of floral envelopes. 

1. ANEMOPSIS, Hook. 

Flowers in a simple conical spadix, which is surrounded by a 5-8-leaved persistent 
colored involucre, each flower subtended by a free colored bract. Stamens 6 to 8, free, 
growing upon the immersed ovary. 

1. A. Californica, Hook. Stem simple, erect, 3 to 15 inches high, with a single 

broad clasping leaf in the middle, and an axillary branchlet reduced to 1 or more petioled 

leaves; radical leaves oblong-oval, cordate at base, 2 to 6 inches long; involucre 1 to 1^ 

inches broad, white, becoming brown. Used medicinally by the Mexicans, who call it 

Yerba Mansa. 


The Order Betulaceae (Birch Family) is represented in California by two Birches, 
which scarcely attain to the dignity of trees, and are confined to the high Sierras, and 
four Alders, two of which grow in the central part of the State, viz. : 

Alnus rubra, Bong. (Red Alder), and the more common 

Alnus rhombifolia, Nutt (White Alder), which may be distinguished by its thinner 
leaves, not rusty beneath, and more slender branches not so distinctly dotted with white. 

Myrica Californica, Cham. (Bayberry), representing the Order Myricaceae grows in 
moist places, and may be known by its thick oblanceolate serrate evergreen leaves and 
dense clusters of small fruit, whitened by a coat of wax. 

Umbellularia Californica, Nutt (Order Lauraceae), is the well-known Laurel. 

Platauus racemosa, Nutt, is the California Sycamore. 

The Order Salicaceae is represented by 4 or 5 Willows; large enough to be called 
trees, and 3 Poplars, viz. : 

Populus tremuloides, Michx. (Quaking Asp), a small tree, with whitish bark 
and round ovate leaves. In the high Sierra. The only Califomian tree, except one or 
two willows, found east of the Rocky Mountains. 

P. trichacarpa, Torr. & Gr. (Cottonwood.) Petioles round; young bark brownish. 

P. Fremonti, Wat. (Fremont's Cottonwood. ) Petioles flattened; young bark yellowish. 

The Walnut Family is represented by Juglans Californica, the California Black 

Ten kinds of Oak Trees, and several shrubs of the same genus, with the chestnut-like 
Chinquapin, represent the Order Cupuliferae. The following, inhabiting the foot-hills 
and valleys, may be distinguished: 

CUPULIFER^. (oak FAMILY.) 107 

* Deciduous trees; acorns maturing the first season. 
t Barh whitish gray. — White Oaks. 
Quercus lobata, Nee. Branches slender, often drooping; acorns tapering, in a deep 
rough cup. The most common valley oak. 

Q. Garry ana, Dougl. Branches coarser; bark thinner; acorns obtuse, in a shallow 
cup; winter buds large. 

Q. Douglasii, Hook. & Am. (Mountain White Oak or Blue Oak.) Leaves smaller, 
less deeply lobed or entire, bluish green; acorn tapering, about an inch long. 

t + Bark dark colored, rough; large leaves sharply 
Q. Kelloggii, Newberry. (Kellogg's Black Oak.) Acorns large, obtuse, very hairy 
inside. Common in the Coast Ranges and foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada. 

* * Evergreen trees; acorns maturing the second season. — Live Oaks. 

Q. chrysolepis, Liebm, Bark ash-gray; acorns obtuse; cup tawny or yellow. 

Q. Wislizenii, A. DC. Bark black; acorns slender, tapering. 

Q. densiflora. Hook. & Am. (Chestnut Oak. ) Differing from all other oaks in hav- 
ing erect aments. Acorns large, obtuse, in thick cups, which are covered with slender, 
rigid, recurved scales. 

* * * Evergreen trees; acorns maturing the first season. 
Q. agrifolia. Nee. Chiefly distinguished from Q. Wislizenii by its annual acoms. 
Order Thymeleaceae is represented by Dirca occidentalis or Leatherwood, a branching 
shrub, 3 or 4 feet high, with flowers in axillary clusters of 3 or 4. 

,108 ORCHID ACE^. (orchis FAMILY.) 


Stems consisting of woody tissue and cellular tissue (pith) intermixed. Embryo 

Order 52. ALISMACEiE. 

Marsh herbs, with leaves all radical, scape-like flowering stems, and (in our species) 
perfect flowers. Sepals and petals each three and distinct. Ovaries 3 to many; distinct, 
or, at least, separating at maturity, forming 1-2-seeded pods. Stamens from 6 to many; 
anthers extrorse, 2-celled. (See Addenda. ) 

* Calyx and corolla colored alike, deciduous. Carpels 6, united. Leaves rush-like. 

1. TRIGLOCHIN, L. Arrow-Grass. 
Flowers small, sessile, on a naked scape. Sepals and petals ovate, greenish-white. 
Stamens 6, filaments short. Stigmas sessile. 

- 1. T. maritimum, L. Fruit ovoid-oblong, grooved, separating into 6 linear carpels; 
scape surpassing the leaves, angled — In salt marshes. 

* * Calyx green and j)^rsistent. Corolla white, deciduous. Carpels many, distinct {Alisma\ 
or 8 to 10 cohering {Damsonium). Leaves long-petioled, with broad blade. 

2. ALISMA, L. Water-Plantain. 
Flowers small, verticillate, in a panicle on a scape. The numerous ovaries becoming 
flattened akenes, arranged in a somewhat three-sided whorl. 

1. A. plantago, L., var. Americanum, Gr. Leaves long-petioled ovate or oblong, 
often cordate at the base, 3-9-nerved; scapes 1 to 4 feet high; the white or pinkish 
petals entire, broadly-elliptical; carpels 15 to 20, obliquely obovate, channeled around the 
outer end. 


Distinguished from Alisma chiefly by the 8 to 10 long-beaked carpels cohering by their 
inner edges in a stellate whorl. 

1. D. Cal-fomicum, Torr. Leaves on long petioles, oblong or lanceolate, with 
obtuse or cordate base, 2 or 3 inches long; whorls distant, 6-9-flowered, on scapes 12 to 
18 inches high; flowers twice as large as those of Alisma plantago; the petals incisely 
cut at the apex; akenes 4 or 5 lines long. 

Order 53. ORCHIDACEiE. 

Hp.rbs with irregular 6-raerous perianth adnate to the 1 -celled ovary; the ovules innu- 
merable on 3 parietal placentas, becoming fine sawdust-like seeds. One petal, called the 
liD, is unlike the other two. Stamens consolidated with the style forming the Column. 


* Anther one {hut distinctly/ 2-celled,) 

Anther adnate to the face of the stigma Habenaria. . 1 

Anther adnate to the back of the stigma. 

Lip free from the column Epipactis. 2 

Lip adherent to the base of the coh;mn Spirantlies. 3 

Anther like a lid over the stigma. (See Addenda.) 

Lip with a spur adherent to the ovary CoraUorhiza, 4 

* * Anthers two, one on each side of the column. 
Lip a conspicuous inflated sac Cypripedium. 5 

1. HABENARIA, Willd., R. Br. Eei.v Orchis. 
Flowers ringent; the sepals and petals similar; lip spurlike; ovary twisted. Swamps. 

1. H. elegaiis, Lindl. The greenisli flowers in a dense spike; spur filifonn. 

2. H. leucostacliys. Stems 1 to 3 feet high; spikes 4 to 18 inches long; flowers 
large, greenish, the spur longer than the entire lip, 6 to 9 lines long. 

2. EPIPACTIS, Hall. 

Petals and sepals similar, spreading, nearly equah Lip oblong, the upper portion con- 
cave and fleshy, the lower jjetaloid, imdivided. Stigma square, projecting downward. 

1. E. gigantea, Dougl. Leaves plicate; flowers brownish or purplish, x^ediceled in 
a spicate raceme, pubescent. Borders of streams. 

3. SPIRANTHES, Richard. Ladies' Tresses. 

Flower oblique on the ovary, the 3 upper segments erect, and more or less cohering, 
the bases of the lip covered by the remaining two segments, and bearing a pair of callosi- 
ties. Flowers in a twisted spike, small, green or greenish white. 

S. RonianzofHana, Cham. Smooth, 4 to 18 inches high, leafy; dense spike 3-ranked, 
bracteate; perianth, white, 4 lines long; petals and sepals incurved; callosities small and 

S. porrifolia, Lindl. Similar; flowers smaller, callosities larger. 

4. CORALLORHIZA, Haller. Coral-root. 

Perianth-segments nearly equal, the lower one (lip) bearing at the base a pau' of pro- 
jecting ridges. Brownish or yellowish, leafless herbs with sheathing bracts; flowers in 
spiked racemes. 

1. C. Bigelovii, Wat. Plant purplish, simple stems 12 to 18 inches high, bearing 20 
or 30 flowers in a crowded sj)ike, on very short pedicels; perianth-segments 4 to 6 lines 
long, marked with 3 dark stripes; capsules reflexed. 

5. CYPRIPEDIUM, L. Lady's Slipper. 
Sepals spreading, distinct, or two lower united. Petals resembling the sepals. Lip a 
large inflated sac. Style bearing on each side a short stamen, the stigma covered by a 
triangular petal-like sterile stamen, which bends down over it. 


1. C. Californicum, Gr. Steins 1 to 3 ft. high, bearing several to twenty or more 
flowers; lip nearly white, 5 to 7 lines long. Cool swamps. 

2. C. montanum, Dougl. Stems shorter; flowers rarely more than 2 or 3; lip much 
larger, white marked with yellow and purple. Forests. 

Order 54. IRIDACEiE. 

Herbs with 2-ranked leaves, the flower buds inclosed by bracts. Perianth adherent 
to the ovary, segments in two, often unequal, sets. Stamens 3, anthers extrorse. Ovary 
3-celled, style 1, stigmas 3, often petaloid. 

1. IRIS, L. Flag. 
Outer segments of the perianth spreading or reflexed and larger than the erect or 
incurving petals. Stamens distinct, covered by the petaloid stigmas. Plants springing 
from thickened rootstocks, with sword-sliaped leaves and showy flowers. 

1. I. longipetala has large, light blue flowers, with rather slender petals. Grows 
in masses on moist hill sides. 

2. I. Douglasiana has (usually) light yellow flowers, with the tube of the perianth 
prolonged considerably beyond the ovary. — Open woods. 

3. I. macrosiphon, Torr. Stems very short from a slender rootstock; leaves 
slender; flowers bright purple; perianth tube very long and slender; ovary tapering to 
a short peduncle. 


Flowers small; the segments of the perianth flat, equal. Stamens united. Stigma 3- 
cleft. Grass-like plants, with winged scapes. 

1. S. bellum, Wat. Flowers blue; ovary globular. Hillsides. 

2. S. Californicum, Ait. f. Flowers yellow, larger; ovary nearly ovoid. Swamps. 

Order 55. LILIACEiE. 

Herbs, or rarely woody plants, with regular and symmetrical flowers; the perianth free 
from the chiefly 3-celled ovary, with the divisions all petaloid (except in Trillium and 
Calochortus), the stamens opposite the divisions of the perianth (in some Bi'odicea, 3 
alternating with 3 staminodia), with 2-celled anthers; fruit a few-many-seeded pod or 
berry; the seeds with copious albumen. 

Series I. Floral bracts present and more or less scarious. Perianth persistent; 
segments l-several-nerved. Stamens perigynous; anthers introrse. Style undivided, 
persistent (except in Chlorogalum). Fruit a loculicidal capsule with black seeds (except 
In Smilacina and Maiantliemum). See Leucocrinum at the end. 

§ 1. Inflorescence umbellate, upon a naked scape arising from, a corm or bulb. 
* Bracts 2 (sometimes 4), broad and spathaceous; capsule lobed Allium. 1 

LILIACE^. (lily family.) IH 

* * Bracts several, not spatJiaceous, distinct; capsule not lohed. 

+- Perianth parted to the base or nearly so; segments spreading, closely 2-3-nervedj 
stamens in one row at the base; anthers versatile; capsule obovoid or subglobose, sessile 
or nearly so. 

Flowers greenish-white; pedicels not jointed; leaves several Muilla. 2 

Flowers yellow; pedicels jointed; leaf solitary Bloomeria. 3 

4- Hf- Perianth with segments more or less united and the stamens on the throat; 
pedicels jointed. 

Perianth funnel-form, not saccate at the base, blue-purple, white or yellow . . Brodiaea. 4 
Perianth tube 6-saccate at base, deep scarlet Brevoortia. 5 

§ 2. Inflorescence racemose or paniculate. 
Flowers on a scape, blue Camassia. 6 

Flowers on a leafy stem, white. 

Stem from a large densely fibrous-coated bulb Chlorogalum. 7 

Stem from a creeping rootstock; leaves cordate to lanceolate. 

Leaves many, sessile. Flowers 3-merous Smilacina. 8 

Leaves 2 or 3, mostly petiolate. Flowers 2-merous .... Maianthemum. 9 
Stem stout, with rigid sheathing bracts Yucca. 10 

Series IL Floral bracts none or foliaceous. Perianth deciduous (except in TriZZ^Mm); 
segments distinct. Stamens hypogynous or at the very base; anthers more or less extrorse 
(introrse in Trillium). Styles deciduous (or sessile stigmas persistent). Flowers mostly 
large and showy. (See Addenda.) 

§ 1. Stem more or less leafy from a bulb or corm. Fruit capsular. 

* Perianth segments similar. 

Anthers distinctly versatile; style undivided Lilium. 11 

Anthers obscurely versatile; style divided to the middle Fritillaria. 12 

* * Perianth segments unlike. 

Anthers basifixed; stigmas sessile Calochortus. 13 

§ 2. Stem from a rootstock. Perianth segments similar. Fruit a berry. 

Flowers apparently axillary on leafy branches Streptopus. 14 

Flowers terminating the leafy branches Prosartes. 15 

Flowers on a scape-like peduncle , Clintonia. 16 

§ 3. Stem from a thicJc rootstoch. Perianth segments dissimilar. 

Flowers umbellate subtended by a pair of radical leaves Scoliopus. 17 

Flowers solitary subtended by a cauline whorl of 3 leaves Trillium. 18 

Series III. Perianth persistent; segments distinct. Stamens at the base of the perianth; 
anthers extrorse, versatile, small, distinctly 2-celled (except in Veratrum). Styles distinct. 
Flowers in simple racemes or panicles. 

112 LILIACKE. (lily family.) 

Stem from a thick rootstick; leaves broad and sheathing Veratrum. 19 

Stem from a bulb; leaves narrow Zygadenus, 20 

Stem covered with rigid bracts; leaves grass-like Xerophyllum. 21 

1. ALLIUM, L. Oniox. Leek. Garlic. 

Flowers deep rose-color to white. Capsule sub-globose or obovoid, inclosing the base 
of the style between the lobes; the filiform style jointed upon the short axis. Fila- 
ments tapering upward from the dilated bases. Leaves one to several. Scape from a 
coated bulb or corm. 

§ 1. Bulbs globose to ovoid, mostly soUtanj; leaves narrowly linear, 2 to 4, shorter than or 

equaling the scape. 

1. A. attenuifolium, Kellogg. Leaves channeled; slender scape 6 to 15 inches high, 
leafy below; spathe- valves short and abruptly acute; umbel usually dense; perianth 
segments 3 or 4 lines long, oblong lanceolate, nearly white. 

2. A. serratum, Wat. Resembling the last; leaves very narrow; spathe-valves 
narrowly acuminate; the deep rose-colored perianth segments 4 to 6 lines long, broadly 
ovate-lanceolate and rather rigid. 

3. A. bisceptrum, Wat. Bulbs light-colored; leaves of ten 2 or 3 lines broad; scapes 
frequently in pairs; flowers few to many, rose-colored, 3 or 4 lines long, segments oblong- 
lanceolate; the alternate filaments with a broad deltoid base; the thin crests of t»e ovary 

4. A. lacunosum, Wat. Flowers similar to the last, usually few (5 to 20) on pedi- 
cels 3 to 5 lines long; filaments all narrowly deltoid at base; ovary scarcely crested. 

§2. Bulbs ovoid; leaves 3, broadly linear, flat and falcate, thick; scape stout, much com- 
pressed and 2-winged, mostly shorter than the leaves; spathe 2-valved ; rose-colored 

5. A. falcifolium. Hook & Am. Scape 2 or 3 inches high; the spreading segments 
of the perianth 4 to 6 lines long, nearly twice longer than the stamens and style, min- 
utely glandular-serrate; capsule acute with 3 short narrow central crests. 

6. A. Breweri, Wat. Segments of the perianth nearly erect, not serrulate, a third 
longer than the stamens; ovary with a thick slightly-lobed crest at the apex of each cell. 

§3. Bulb an ovoid corm propagating by an offshoot from the loioer part of the tall terete 

scape ; capsule not crested. 

7. A. unifolium, Kellogg. Scape a foot or two high; flowers bright rose-color, 5 
to 7 lines long, on pedicels an inch long or more. 

2. MUILLA, Watson. 
Sufficiently characterized in the synopsis and by the solitary species. 


M. maritima, "Wat. Corm small; leaves scabrous, a line wide or less; the slender 
scabrous scape 2 to 6 inches high, with 4 to 6 linear bracts; perianth subrotate, the seg- 
ments 2 or 3 lines long. — In saline localities. 

3. BLOOMERIA, Kellogg. 

Filaments free, surrounded by a somewhat cap-shaped and winged appendage. One 
species only. 

B. aurea, Kellogg. Corm small, leaf 3 to 6 lines broad; scabrous scape 6 to 18 
inches high; flowers numerous on slender pedicels, subrotate, the segments 4 to 6 lines 
long; appendages of the filaments nearly a line long, with a terminal cusp. 

4. BRODIiEA, Smith. 

Perianth more or less narrowly funnel-form, not contracted at the throat. Stamens 6 
in one, or two rows with winged or naked filaments, or 3 and alternate, with as many 
staminodia. Capsule ovoid to oblong. 

Stamens in one row on the throat; anthers basifixed; purplish perianth mostly broadly 
funnel-form, the tube shorter than the limb. — § 1. EubrodicEa. 

Stamens in two rows (except in B. Bridgesii), with more or less distinctly versatile 
anthers and naked filaments; capsule stipitate; perianth segments equaling or shorter 
than the mostly narrow tube. — § 2. Seuhertia. 

Stamens in one row, with deltoid or wing dilated filaments and versatile anthers; cap- 
sule stipitate; perianth segment twice longer than the turbinate tube.— §3. CalUpro7'a. 

§ 1. Eubrodicea. 

* Stamens 3, opposite the inner segments, and alternate with as many staminodia; seg- 
ments 2 or 3 times as long as the tube. 

+- Pedicels {usually few) more or less elongated, 

1. B. grandiflora, Smith. Leaves a line broad, subterete; scape 4 to 10 inches high; 
flowers an inch long; staminodia entire, obtuse, about equaling the linear anthers; fila- 
ments H lines long or more; capsule oblong, narrowed at base; cells 6-8-seeded; seeds a 
line long. 

Var. major, Benth. Leaves flattened broader; scape stouter, a foot or two high; 
pedicels more numerous and longer; capsules with usually a broader base; seeds larger. 

2. B. minor, Wat. Scape very slender, 3 to 6 inches high; flowers a half to an 
inch long; staminodia broad and usually emarginate, longer than the oblong anthers; 
capsule obovoid. acute, 3 lines long; cells 3-seeded. 

3. B. terrestris, Kellogg. Leaves nearly terete; scape very short; pedicels very 
slender, 3 or 4 inches long; flowers 8 or 10 lines long; staminodia emarginate, yellow, 
exceeding the oblong sagittate anthers; capsule acute at base, a half inch long; cells C-S- 

114 LILIACE2E. (lilt FAMILY.) 

4- -J- Flowers suhcapUate. 

4. B. congesta, Smith. Corm often deep-seated; scape 2 to 4 ft. high, smooth; 
umbel often produced into a short dense raceme; flowers about 9 lines long; staminodia 
deeply cleft, exceeding the nearly sessile emarginate anthers; capsule ovoid; seeds usually 
solitary, 2 lines long. 

5. B. multiflora, Benth. Corm less deeply seated; scape 1 or 2 ft. high, some- 
what scabrous; upibel not produced; staminodia broad, entire, obtuse, about equaling 
the anthers; seeds several in each cell. 

* * Stamens 6, those opposite the inner perianth segments ivith their short ^.laments con- 

spicuousli/ wing-appendaged; segments little longer than the tube; flowers suhcapitate. 

6. B. capitata, Benth. Scape usually 1 or 2 ft. high; flowers 6 to 10 lines long; 
outer filaments dilated at the base; inner anthers linear, little shorter than the oblong- 
lanceolate wings; ovoid capsule 3 lines long. 

§ 2. Seubertia. 

* Perianth more or less attenuate at base; umbel open; flowers blue or purplish, rarely 


7. B. Bridgesii, Wat. Scape a foot high or more; flowers 12 to 15 lines long, the 
very narrow tube exceeding the segments; filaments deltoid in one row on the throat; 
anthers linear, 2 lines long; capsule ovoid shorter than the stipe, beaked by the very 
slender style; seeds 2 or 3 in each cell. 

8. B. laxa, Wat. Scape 6 inches to 2 ft. high, smooth or scabrous; flowers few to 
many, 12 to 20 lines long, the very narrow tube equaling or exceeding the segments; 
filaments very slender, the upper on the throat o^jposite the inner segments; capsule 
oblong, long-stipitate; style rather short; seeds several. 

9. B. peduncularis, Wat. Scape 1 or 2 ft. high, smooth; flowers C to 9 lines long, 
on very slender pedicels, the segments a little longer than the turbinate tube; lower 
anthers sessile, the upper on short filaments; stipe 1 or 2 lines long. 

B. crocea Wat. and B. gracilis, Wat., with yellow flowers, grow in the northern counties. The latter 
only 2 to 4 inches high; leaf solitary. 

§ 3. Calliprora. 

10. B. isioides, Wat. Scape 3 inches to 2 ft. high, usually scabrous; flowers 
yellow, more or less tinged with purple or nearly white (the brown mid-vein often double 
or triple), 5 to 10 lines long, on pedicels 1 to 4 inches long; filaments winged their whole 
length, bicuspidate above; capsule ovoid-oblong. 

11. B. lactea, Wat. Scape usually 1 or 2 ft. high, smoother scabrous; flowers white, 
with green mid- veins or sometimes purplish, 4 or 5 lines long on slender pedicels; filaments 
deltoid, a line long; capsule subglobose. — A stouter form north. 

Stropliolirion Californicum, Torr. , may be distinguished from Brodia?a by its rose- 

LILIACE^. (lily family.) 115 

colored saccate perianth, and lax often twining scape. The short perianth tube contracted 
at the throat and the nearly sessile ovary separates it from Brevoortia. 


Perianth-tube broad, 6-saccate at base, deep scarlet, several times longer than the short 
erect or reflexed yellowish limb. Stamens 3, alternate with three broad triincate stam- 
inodia; anthers basiflxed, nearly sessile. Capsule long-stipitate. 

1. B. cocciuea, Wat. Scape erect, 1 to 3 ft. high, with reddish bracts; pedicels 6 

to 15, an inch long or less; flowers 12 to 16 lines long. — Sometimes called Vegetable Fire 


6. CAMASSIA, Lindl. 

Perianth-segments narrow, widely spreadnig, mostly deciduous. Style thread-like, 
the base persistent. Flowers in a loose raceme. 

1. C. esculenta, Lindl. (Wild Hyacinth or Camass). Scape stout, 1 to 2 ft. 
high; leaves flat, 3 to 8 lines broad; pedicels mostly shorter than the dark-blue (rarely 
white) flowers; the perianth-segments 7 to 15 lines long, a little exceeding the stamens. 

The tunicated bulb is an article of food among the Indians. 


Flowers white or pinkish, in loose paniculate racemes; bulbs with membranous ol 
densely fibrous coats. 

C. pomeridianum, Kunth. (Soap Hoot.) Bulb large, thickly coated with coarse 
brown fibers; stem and spreading panicle 1 to 3 ft. high. Flowers purple-veined, 8 to 10 
lines long on spreading pedicels 2 to 9 lines long. 

C. angustifolium, Kellogg. Bulb-coat, thin; flowers smaller, greenish-veined. 

8. SMILACINA, Desf. False Solomon's Seal. 
Flowers small white, trimerous, with minute scarious bracts, in a racemose panicle or 
simple raceme on an erect leafy stem. Stamens at the base; filaments subulate; the 
short anthers versatile. Style short, persistent; stigma 3-lobed. 

1. S. amplexicaulis, Nutt. Leaves pubescent, ovate to lanceolate, rarely at all 
acuminate, mostly clasping at base; the close raceme compound, berries reddish. 

2. S. stellata, Desf. Leaves smooth or pubescent, lanceolate, acutish, closely 
clasping, usually ascending and folded; raceme simple, few-flowered, about an inch long; 
perianth-segments 2 or 3 lines long exceeding the pedicels; berry 3 lines broad, blue- 

3. S. sessilifolia, Nutt. Taller than the last (a foot or two high) leaves acumi- 
nate, usually flat and spreading; raceme larger, the pedicels 2 to 7 lines long; berry 3 to 
5 lines in diameter, blue-black. 

9. M AI ANTHEM UM, Weber. 
Flowers white, in a simple narrow raceme; perianth 4-parted; stamens 4. Leaves 2 
or 3, with cordate base. Berry red. Otherwise as Smilacina. 

116 LILIACE^. (lily FAIMLLLY.) 

M. bifolium, DO. Somewhat pubescent; about six inches high; leaves ovate-cor- 
date with a broad sinus; style long and slender; berry 2 lines in diameter. 

10. YUCCA, L. 

Perianth campanulate, white or whitish; segments ovate-lanceolate, many nerved. 
Filaments clavate; anthers small. Style stout and persistent (or none); the emarginate 
stigmas connate into a stigmatic tube. 

1. Y. "Wliipplei, Torr. Caudex none or short; leaves rigid, serrulate, smooth, 
ending in a brown spine; scape 4 to 12 ft. high with imbricated sheathing bracts; panicle 
narrow and spike-like, dense; greenish-white flowers sub-rotate; segments oblong, 
lanceolate, 1 or 2 inches long; stigma slightly 3-lobed. 

11. LILIUM, Tourn. Lily. 
Perianth-segments spreading or recurved, with a honey-bearing furrow at the base. 
Anthers linear, distinctly versatile. Style long; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule not sharply 
angled ; seeds flat. Stem simple, bearing many whorled or scattered sessile leaves and 
one to many showy flowers. 

* Perianth-segments narroiuing gradualhj into a claio. 

1. Ii. rubescens, Wat. Leaves oblanceolate more or less verticillate; flowera 
ascending or nearly erect, usually U or 2 inches long, with re volute segments, pale 
lilac or nearly white, becoming rose-purple; anthers 2 or 3 lines long. 

L. Washingtonianum, Kellogg, of the northern counties, is much larger, the 
fragrant white flowers 3 or 4 inches long. 

* * Perianth-segments oblanceolate, yelloio or orange, coarsely spotted with hrown. 

2. L. maritimum, Kellogg. Stem rather low; leaves usually scattered; narrow, 
often obtuse; flowers solitary or few, horizontal, 1.^ to 2 inches long, deep reddish- 
orange. Style and stamens short, anthers 2 lines long. 

3. L. pardalinum, Kellogg (Tiger Lily). Rhizome thick and branching; scales 
jointed below; leaves flat, smooth, narrowly lanceolate to linear, the middle in whorls of 
9 to 15; flowers bright orange red, lighter to yellow in the center, 2 or 3 inches long; 
segments strongly re volute; anthers 4 or 5 lines long. 

L. Paerti, Wat., of San Bernadino Co., has pale yellow flowers. 

L. PAE%-rM Kellogg, of the Sierra Nevada, has small yellow or orange flowers on large stems from 

rhizomatous bulb. , , ., .^ ,. i ^v. r, ,t, 

L. OoLUMBiANUM, Haxson, of the northern Sierra Nevada, resembles L. Pardaltnum; but the bulb 

is small, not rhizomatous. . ,. , , 

L. HuMBOLDTii, closely resembles the last, but has a large bulb, 10 to 20 leaves in a whorl, larger 

flowers and an obovoid capsule. 


Perianth segments mostly broader than iu L ilium, and concave; the anthers more 
obscurely versatile. Nectary a shallow pit. Styles united to the middle in our species. 

LUiiACEjE. (lily family.) 117 

Bulb-scales mostly short, very thick; the flowers 18 lines or less in length; frequently 


* Capsule rather ohtusebj angled; bulb-scales 3 or Jf. lines long. 

1. P. recurva, Benth. Bulb-scales numerous and thick; leaves linear-lanceolate, 
mostly in two whorls near the middle of the stem; flowers 1 to 7, tinged or blotched 
with light purple or scarlet, 12 to 18 lines long; segments narrowly oblanceolate with 
recurved tips; stamens shorter, equaling the very slender style. Sierra Nevada. 

2. F. liliacea, Lindl. (Green Lily.) Bulb-scales few, very thick; leaves oblan- 
ceolate to linear, approximate or whorled near the base; flowers 1 to 5 greenish white 
(not blotched), 8 to 12 lines long, segments oblanceolate, spreading; style stout. 

3. F. biflora, Lindl. Usually low; bulb-scales few, ovoid, often tipped with a 
small scarious blade; leaves narrowly lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, few, scattered or 
somewhat wliorled near the base : flowers 1 to 3, dark brownish or greenish, purple, seg- 
ments widely spreading; capsule broadly obovoid. 

* * Capsule acutehj angled or winged; bulb-scales thicTc, about 6 lines long. 

4. F. lanceolata, Pursh. Leaves in 1 to 3 whorls above the middle of the stem; 
flowers 1 or 2, brownish purple mottled with greenish yellow; segments narrowly oblan- 
ceolate; stamens 6 or 8 lines long. 

Var. floribunda, Benth. Flowers 4 to 8, or rarely fewer, greenish yellow blotched 
with purple; segments 4 to 6 lines broad, strongly arched with broad nectaries, acute; 
lower pedicels an inch long or more. 

Var. gracilis, "Wat. Flowers smaller than the last, with narrow segments. 

5. F. parviflora, Torr. Leaves linear, whorled; flowers small on short recurved 
pedicels, yellowish, tinged with purple. Sierra Nevada. 

F. plurifloia, Torr., with styles united to the summit, a tall species with reddish 
purple flowers, grows in the Sierra Nevada. 

13. CALOCHORTUS, Pursh. 

Flowers mostly large and showy, broadly campanulate; the outer segments sepaloid, 
the inner dilated and mostly with pitted and bearded or crested glands. Stigmas sessile, 
distinct, recurved, persistent. Capsule usually deeply triquetrous. Stem usually 
branched and lax or flexuous, from a coated corm, sparingly leafy; leaves with transverse 

Inner perianth-segments strongly arched and broadly pitted, the gland usually with ?, 
transverse scale or fringe; flowers or fruit more or less nodding, and stem usually lax. — 
§ 1. Eucalijchortus. 

Flowers open-campanulate with usually densely hairy glands without scales; outer seg- 
ments often hairy or glandular within; pedicels stout, erect; stems stouter. — §2. Mari- 


§ 1. Eucalychortus. 

* Flowers subglobose, nodding ; stem usually tall and branching. 

118 LILIACEffi. (lily family.) 

1. C, albus, Dougl. (Snowy Lily-Bell.) Stem 1 to 3 ft. high; flowers white with 
purplish base; petals acutish, an inch long; bearded and ciliate; gland lunate, with four 
transverse imbricate fringed scales. 

2. C. pulchellus, Dougl. (Golden Lily-Bell. ) Stem usually a foot high or more; 
flowers yellow or orange; petals ciliate and bearded with glandular tipped hairs, deeply 
pitted, the gland covered by the reflexed stifl" hairs of its upper margin. Coast Range. 

* * Flowers campanulate, erect when open ; pedicels becoming recurved ; stem mostly low 
and flowers often suhumhellate. 

3. C. Benthami, Baker. Eesembling the last; stem low and leaves narrow; the 
yellow flowers nearly erect, petals 6 lines long, mostly obtuse, often deep brown at base. 
Sierra Nevada. 

4. C. Maweanus, Leichtlin. Low, usually branched; bracts an inch long or more; 
petals white, purplish at base, hairy, C to 8 lines long, somewhat pitted, the gland cov- 
ered by a broad semicircular scale. Coast Range. 

5. C. casruleus, Wat. Low, umbellately 2-5-flowered; pedicels very slender, 
petals G or 7 lines long, hairy, lilac dotted and lined with blue, the gland covered by a 
fringed scale; capsule orbicular or nearly so, G lines long. Sierra Nevada. 

6. C. nudus, Wat. Low; leaf solitary, 3 to 10 lines broad; bracts rarely an inch 
long; flowers 1 to G in an umbel; petals 4 to 10 lines long, white or pale lilac, without 
hairs, denticulate. Sierra Nevada. 

7. C. lilacinus, Kellogg. Stem bulbiferous near the base, with broad leaves and 
long conspicuous bracts; flowers 4 to 10, on long pedicels in 1 to 3 umbels; petals pale 
lilac with purplish claw, G to 12 lines long; somewhat hairy below the middle; gland 
ciliate-margined, scale narrow; capsule elliptical, an inch long. Coast Range. 

8. C. uniflorus, Hook & Arn. Stem very short, bulbiferous, 1-2-flowered; petals 
lilac with purplish claw, the lower half hairy above the small purple densely hairy 
gland. Coast Range. 

§ 2. Mariposa. Butterfly Lily. 

* Flowers yelloio or orange^ marked with brown or purple. 

9. C. Weedii, Wood. Corm fibrous coated; stem leafy, 1-3-flowered; leaves con- 
volute; sepals with a slightly hairy brown spot; petals deep yellow, dotted and often 
margined with purple, covered with slender hairs and ciliate an inch longer more; gland 
small, densely hairy. Coast Range. 

10. C. luteus, Dougl. Stem bulbiferous near the base, 1-G-flowered; leaves nar- 
row; sepals narrowly lanceolate with a brown spot; petals an inch or two long, yellow to 
deep orange, lined with brownish purple especially on the middle where it is slightly 
hairy; claw purplish; gland round or somewhat lunate, densely covered with ascending 
hairs. Variable in color and markings, perhaps running into C. venustus. Coast and 
Sierra Nevada. 


11. C. venustus, Benth. Petals white or pale lilac, with a more or less conspicu- 
ous reddish spot at top, a brownish yellow-bordered center, and a brownish base; gland 
large, oblong, usually densely hairy. Var. pu7'purascens has deep lilac or purplish petals. 
Coast Range. 

14. STREPTOPUS, Michx. 

The pendulous flowers solitary or in pairs, on thread-like peduncles, which bend 
around from nearly opposite the leaves so as to appear axillary. Anthers sagittate. 

1. S. amplexifolius, D C. (Twisted Stalk. ) Leaves very smooth, strongly clasp- 
ing; flowers greenish white, half an inch long; fruit a slightly 3-lobed reddish berry. 

15. PROSARTES, D. Don. 

Flowers in fascicles or solitary terminating the branches, white or greenish, sub-erect 
or pendulous; segments acute or acuminate. Anthers on slender filaments, oblong, 
obtuse, dehiscing laterally. Styles united. Fruit a somewhat fleshy, obfcusely-lobed 
reddish berry. Leaves with reticulated veinlets. 

1. P. Hookeri, Torr. More or less rough-pubescent, with short usually spreading 
hairs; leaves ovate or sometimes oblong, cordate-clasping base, acute or shortly acuminate; 
periantli usually rather broad at base, spreading segments acute, 5 or 6 lines long, about 
equaling the stamens; ovary pubescent, stigma entire; fruit obovoid, obtuse. Coast 

2. P. trachyandra, Torr. Resembling the last; leaves less deeply cordate and 
broader toward the apex; stamens a third shorter than the perianth; ovary smooth; fruit 
beaked. Sierra Nevada. 

P. Menziesii, Don., of the northern coast has ovate leaves and a 3-cleft stigma. 

16. CLINTONIA, Raf. 

Flowers in our species umbellate upon a scape-like peduncle, rose-colored. Ovary 
2-celled; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Fruit a deep-blue berry. Leaves radical; large oblan- 
ceolate, sheathing, ciliate. 

1. C. Andrewsiana, Torr. Scape a foot or two high, usually with a foliaceous 
bract and one or more few-flowered lateral fascicles; inflorescence more or less pubescent; 
flowers suberect, deep rose-color, the oblanceolate segments gibbous at base, 4 to 7 lines 
long, exceeding the stamens and style. 

C. uniflora, Kunth., has a large solitary white flower on a short scape. Sierra Nevada and North 

17. SCOLIOPUS, Torr. 
Flowers purplish, on slender flexuose pedicels; outer segments lanceolate, inner nar- 
rowly linear. Anthers oblong; filaments short. Style short; stigmas recurved. Fruit 
triquetrous. Whole plant brown-punctate, smooth. 

1. S. Bigelovii, Torr. Leaves oval-elliptic to narrowly oblanceolate, 4 to 15 inches 
long; pedicels 3 to 12, 3 to 8 inches long. 

120 LILIACEffi. (lily family.) 

18. TRILLIUM, L. Three-leaved Nightshade. 

Flowers white to purple; outer segments green, inner petaloid. Anthers adnate 
introrse. Stigmas linear, sessile. Stem bearing at the top a single whorl of 3 broad 
netted- veined leaves. 

1. T. sessile, L. var. Californicum, Wat. The sessile leaves broadly rhombic- 
ovate, 3 to 6 inches long; flower sessile, petals oblanceolate to rhombic-ovate, 1 to 4 
inches long, purple or rose-color or white. 

2. T. ovatum, Pursh. (Wake Robin.) Leaves similar to the last, smaller; flower 
on a pedicel, white, turning rose-color. 

19. VHRATRUM, Tourn. False Helebore. 
Perianth slightly adherent to tho ovary. Anthers cordate or reniform, peltate after 
opening. Capsule membranous, 3-beaked. Stems stout and leaf}' from thick rootstocks. 

1. V. Californicum, Durand. Stem several feet high; lower leaves broad-elliptical, 
upper leaves lanceolate; bracts usually exceeding the pedicels; perianth-segments broadly 
oblanceolate, whitish with greener base, often denticulate, 3 to 8 lines long; capsule an 
inch long. — iMoist places. 

2. V. fimbriatum, Gr. Leaves narrowed at base, 6 to 18 inches long, 2 to 6 inches 
wide, acute or acuminate; perianth-segments rhombic-ovate 3 to 5 lines long: capsulo 
4 lines long. — Swamps. 

20. ZYGADENUS, Michx. 
Flowers white or greenish, erect in paniculate or simple racemes. Perianth-segments 
oblong-lanceolate to ovate, mostly glandular and somewhat narrowed at base. 

1. Z. Fremontii, Torr. Stem G inches to 3 ft. high; leaves glaucous, an inch broad, 
or less; bracts mostly green; periantli 3 to 7 lines long, gland irregular and notched on 
its upper margin. Flowers perfect. 

2. Z. venenosus, Wat. Stem slender, 6 inches to 2 ft. high; leaves rarely over 2 
or 3 lines broad, scabrous; raceme simple, rarely compound, short, with narrow scarious 
bracts; perianth-segments 2 or 3 lines long. Flowers polygamous. 

21. XERCPHYLLUM, Michx. 

Flowers white, in a sub-pyramidal many-flowered raceme. Styles reflexed or recoiled, 
Btigmatic doAvn the inner side. Cauline leaves numerous, setaceous. 

1. X. tenas, Nutt. Stem 2 to 5 ft. high; leaves about 2 lines broad, often 2 or 3 
ft. long; raceme becoming a foot or more long; perianth-segments oblong, 4 or 5 lines 
long, scarcely equaling the stamens. 

LETJCOCRIlS^UM MONTANUM, Nntt., is an acaulescent plant whicli produces 4 to 8 fragrant white 
flowera ou shurt perliceld arising from a eubterraueau stein; the sleuaer tube of the saiVer-funu periaith 
an inch ( r two loug —Sandy valley-*. 

Order ARACEE is represe'.led by SYMI T.OCAIIPUS KAMTScHATICUS Bong. (Skunk Cabbage) a 
mari-h plant A\ith large erect leaves, the liesay spadix becoming au oblong-ovoid fruit two or threa 
inches in length. 


[To Page 60.] 
GSnothera albicanlis, Nutt. Stems white, erect, ^ to 4 ft. high; leaves linear to 
oblong-lanceolate, entire or repand-denticulate or sinuate-pinnatifid toward the base, 1 to 
3 inches long; flowers axillary, white becoming pinkish, 1 to 2 inches in diameter; calyx 
tube an inch long or less; capsule an inch or two long. — Sand hills near Antioch. 

[To Page G2.] 
Mentzelia Lindleyi, Torr. & Gr. Slender, 1 to 3 ft. high, branched; leaves ovate 
to narrowly lanceolate, 2 or 3 inches long, pectinately pinnatifid, or coarsely sinuate- 
toothed; flowers axillary and terminal; calyx lobes 5 to 9 lines long, lanceolate; petals 
obovate, abruptly acuminate, an inch long. — Corral Hollow, Mt. Hamilton. 

[To Page 82.] 

Phacelia Douglasii, Torr. Pubescent and hirsute with mostly spreading hairs; 
leaves elongated-oblong or linear, pinnatifid, or pinnately parted into pairs of lobes, the 
terminal lobe liardly longer than the others; flowers loosely racemose, long-pediceled; 
calyx lobes spatulate. Low spreading stems with blue flowers resembling Nemopldla 
insignis. — Antioch, A. A. Bailey. 

[To Page 8G.] 

Convolvulus arvensis, L. (Bindweed. ) Stems procumbent and twining from deep 
rootstocks; leaves hastate to sagittate, -^ to 1| inches long; peduncles mostly l-flowered, 
with a pair of minute bracts near the center; corolla a half to nearly an inch long, white, 
tinged with brownish red. — A troublesome weed now abundant in San Jose, Stockton, 
Oakland, etc. The flowers appear late in the dry season. 

[To Page 88.] 
Solanum Carolinense, L. (Horse Nettle.) Stems prickly; leaves ovate»oblong, 
sinuate-toothed, rough with stellate hairs, yellow prickles along the midrib, and on the 
calyx; flowers pale blue or white, large; berries globular, orange-yellow. — Introduced at 
Vallejo, C. B. Towle. 

[To Page 91.] 
Tonella Collinsioides, Nutt. A slender plant distinguished from ColUnsia by the 
leaves, some of them being 3-parted. Flowers minute, the tube slightly gibbous* 
stamens free from the lower lobe of the limb; capsule considerably exceeding the calyx. 
— Marin Co., Mrs Oakley. 

[To Page 91.] 
Pentstemon centranthifolius, Benth. Glaucous, strict and virgate, leafy 1 to 3 ft. 
high; leaves thick, ovate-lanceolate, sessile; corolla deep and bright red, tubular, an 
inch or more long, the lobes nearly equal, very short; sterile filament naked. A showy 
species well worth cultivating for its deep vermilion flowers. — Very abundant on the 
sand-hills near Antioch. A. A. Bailey. 


[To Page 26.] 
Viola glabella, N'utt. Stems 5 to 12 inches high, from a creeping root-stock, erect, 
leafy above, with a few bracts below; leaves cordate to reniform, acute, serrate or crenate; 
flowers yellow, veined with purple. — Redwoods. 

[To Page 31.] 
Sida hederacea, Torr. Stems decumbent; leaves reniform, one-sided, irregularly 
crenate or dentate; flowers solitary or clustered in the axils, half an inch long, yellowish; 
calyx with one or two slender bractlets. 

[To Page 105.] 
Polygonum Paronychia, Cham. & Sclilecht. Stems woody, prostrate, leafy; leaves 
linear, revolute, the midrib channeled, and each side ciliolate; the pinkish flowers in 
dense spikes, — Common near the coast. 

[To Page 108.] 

Sagittaria variabilis, Engelm (?). Flowers in whorls of three on an angled scape, 
one to several feet high, the upper flowers on longer pedicels and steril; calj'x green; 
petals broad, 3 or 4 lines long, white; stamens many; ovaries forming a head of beaked 
achenia. — A marsh herb, with obtuse, sagittate leaves, or some (without a true blade) 

[To Page 109.] 

Calypso borealis, Salisb. Bulb globular, solid, bearing a 1 -flowered scape, 5 or 6 
inches in height, and a solitary ovate leaf; sepals and petals linear, pinkish, the lip slip- 
per-shaped, 2-pointed underneath the apex, an inch long, variegated purple and yellow. 
Moist woods, Duncan's Mill, Piussian Piver. Miss Wood. 

[To Page 111.] 

Erythronium grandiflorum, Pursh. Var. (?) Scape arising from an oblong corm, 
which bears a j^air of broad leaves; flowers lily-like, racemose or solitary, yellowish, an 
inch or two long. — Healdsburg, 7?. H. Thomson. Cloverdale. 

E. Hartwegi, Wat., has usually mottled leaves, the flowers solitary, or two or three 
in a sessile umbel. — Yuba Co., B. K. Hill. 

E. purpurascens, Wat., may be known by its large bulb, undulate leaves and purple 
tinged flowers. — Sierra Nevada. 


Abortion, the imperfect formation or ab- 
sence of a part. 

Abrupt, ending suddenly. 

AcAULESCENT, apparently steniless. 

AccuMBENT, the radicle lying against the 
edges of the cotyledons. 

AcEROSE, needle-shaped, like pine leaves. 

AciTMiNATE, ending in a tapering point. 

Acute, merely sharp-pointed. 

Adnate, growing fast to. When the an- 
ther seems to be attached by its whole 
length to the filament. 

Aggregate, crowded into a cluster. 

Akene, a 1 -seeded seed-like fruit. 

Albujien, nourishment in the seed not 
forming part of the embryo. 

AlNDRous, refers to stamens. 

Anterior, on the side of the flower next 
the bract. 

Apetalous, without petals. 

Appressed, lying flat, or close together. 

Ascending, rising obliquely. 

Attenuate, tapering gradually. 

Auriculate, ear-like lobes at the base. 

Awn, an appendage like the beard of barley. 

Axil, the angle between leaf and stem. 

BrFiD, 2-cleft to about the middle. 

Bilabiate, 2- lipped. 

Blade, the broad portion of a leaf. 

Bract, the leaf which subtends the flower. I 
Bractlet, a bract on a pedicel. ' 

Caducous, falling off at the time of ex- 
pansion. ! 
Campanulate, bell-shaped. j 
Canescent, whitened with fine close pu- j 
bescence. i 
Capillary, like a hair. 
Capitate, having a head, or collected into ' 

a head. 
Capsule, any compound dehiscent fruit. 
Carpel, a simple pistil, or element of a 

compound one. 
Caudate, tailed. 

Caulescent, having an obvious stem. ' 

Cauline, relating to a stem. ', 

CiLiATE, fringed with hairs. j 

Clavate, club-shaped. j 

Claw, the narrowed base of a petaL ■ 

Cleft, cut to about the middle. 
Cohesion, the union of like organs. 
Confluent, running together, or blending. j 
Conglomerate, thickly clustered. j 

Connate, united from the first. j 

Connective, the part of an anther cou« j 

necting the cells. 
Connivent, coming together or meeting. 
Convolute, rolled up. 
Cordate, heart-shaped with the point ap. | 



Corymb, a flat-topped flower cluster, tlie 

pedicels unequal. 
CoSTATE, ribbed. 

Cotyledons, the leaves of the embryo. 
Creeping, running on the ground and 

Crenate, the margin scolloped. 
CuNEATE, wedge-shaped. 
Cuspidate, tipped with a rigid point. 
Cyme, a flower cluster in which the oldest 

flowers are in the center. 

Deciduous, falling ofi" before withering; or, 
if leaves, before winter. 

Declined, turned to one side. 

Decumbent, reclining on the ground, the 
end rising. 

Deflexed, bent downwards. 

Dehiscent Fruits, etc. , open by 

Dehiscence, splitting as pods do. 

Dentate, toothed, the teeth pointing di- 
rectly away from the margin. 

Depressed, flattened from above. 

DiADELPHOUS, stamens united by the fila- 
ments in two sets. 

DiCHOTOMOUS, forking into two branches. 

DicoTYLEDENOUS, having two seed leaves. 

Diffuse, widely and loosely spreading. 

Digitate, compound with the jjarts arising 
at one point. 

Dicecious, with stamens and pistils in 
separate blossoms on diff'erent indi- 

Dissected, cut into pieces, or nearly so. 

Distinct, when parts of the same name do 
not cohere. 

Divaricate, separating widely. 

Divergent, the summits inclined from each 

Drupe, a stone fruit (like a cherry). 

Embryo, the rudimentary plant in a seed. 
Entire, the margin whole and even, not 

lobed or toothed. 
Epigynous, growing on the ovary. 
Erose, irregularly notched as if gnawed. 
Exserted, protruding beyond other organs. 
ExsTiPULATE, without stipules. 
ExTRORSE, turned outward. 

Fascicle, a close cyme, a bundle of leaves. 

Fertile Flower, one having pistils. 

Filament, the stalk of an anther. 

Filiform, like a thread. 

Foliaceous, like a leaf. 

FoLiOLATE, consisting of leaflets (5-folio- 

late means with five leaflets). 
Follicle, a simple pod opening down one 

Fruit, the seed and all that belong to it. 

Glaucous, covered with a whitish bloom ■ 
which rubs off, as the surface of a 
cabbage leaf, or a plum. 

Glomerate, clustered into a ball. 

Glomerule, a capitate cyme. 

Hastate, with a spreading lobe at the base 
on each side. 

Hirsute, clothed with coarse hairs. 

Hispid, beset with bristly hairs. 

Hoary, grayish white from a white pubes- 

Hypogynous, growing under the pistil, 
free from the calyx and corolla. 

Incumbent, when the radicle lies against 

the back of one of the cotyledons. 
Inferior, underneath or anterior. 
Innate, borne on the apex or end. 
Introrse, turned inward. 



Involucee, a set of bracts surrounding a 

flower cluster. 
Involute, rolled inward. 
Irkegulae, unequal in size or shape. 

Lacixiate, cut into narrow incisions. 
Lamina, blade of a leaf or petal. 
Lateral, pertaining to the side. 
Legume, fruit like a pea-pod. 
Limb, the exposed jDart of a corolla, calyx, 

etc. , or the blade of a petal, etc. 
Line, the twelfth of an inch. 
Linear, narrow and much longer than 

wide, the margins paralleL 
Lobe, any division or projecting part. 

Merous, the parts of a flower (5-merous, 

the parts in fives). 
MucRONATE, abruptly tipped with a short 


Nerves, parallel and simple veins. 
Nodding, the apex or top pointing down- 

Ob-, prefixed means reverse of; as, ob-cord- 
ate, inverted heart-shaped, i. e., the 
stem attached to the apex. 

Oblique, one-sided. 

Oblong, long-elliptical. 

OcHROLEUCOUs, pale dull yellow. 

Oval, broadly elliptical. 

Ovary, that portion of the pistil which 
becomes the seed vessel. 

Ovate, like the longitudinal section of an 

Oven), egg-shaped. 

Palmate, lobed so that the lobes point 
away from the end of the petiole, as 
in an ivy or a maple leaf. 

Panicle, a raceme branching irregularly. 
Parted, cut almost through. 
Pectinate, like the teeth of a comb. 
Pedicel, the stalk of a single blossom in a 

Peduncle, the stalk of a cluster or of a 

solitary flower. 
Perfoliate, when the stem seems to pass 

through the leaf. 
Perforate, with holes or transparent dots. 
Perigynous, borne on the calyx. 
Persistent, remaining until the fruit has 

Petiole, the leaf stem. 
Petiolule, the stem of a leaflet. 
Pilose, with distinct straight hairs. 
Pinnate, a compound leaf with the leaflets 

along the side of a common petiole. 
Pinnately cleft, lobed, etc., with the 

lobes along the sides of a long leaf. 
Placenta, the part of the ovary which 

bears the seeds. 
Pod, a dry deliiscent fruit. 
Pome, a fruit like a pear or apple. 
Posterior, next the stem. 
Procumbent, lying along the ground. 
Prostrate, lying flat like a melon- vine. 
Pubescent, with soft or downy hairs. 
Punctate, dotted as if by holes. 
Pungent, rigid sharp-pointed. 

Paceme, elongated flower bunches, with 
the oldest flowers below and on ped- 

Radical, coming from the root (apparently). 

Radicle, the stem of an embryo. 

Peniform, kidney-shaped, 

Repand, the margin slightly wavy. 

Retrorse, directed backward. 

Retuse, slightly notched at a rounded apex. 



Revolute, rolled backward. 

Rachis, the main stem in a spike, etc. 

RooTSTOCK, an underground stem- 

Rotate, wheel-shaped. 

Rr>'crs'ATE, teeth pointing backward. 

Sagittate, like an arrow-head. 

Salver-shaped, tubular, the border spread- 
ing at right angles to the tube. 

Scape, a flower-stalk rising from the ground 
or near it. 

ScoEPiorD, coiled round like a scorpion. 

Secttsd, all turned to one side. 

Seep^te, with teeth like a saw. 

Setaceocs, like a bristle. 

Spattlate, like a druggist's spatula. 

Spike, a long inflorescence of sessile flowers. 

Stellate, star-shaped. 

STiGiiA, the part of a pistil which receives 
the pollen. 

Stipe, the stalk of an ovary. 

Stlpel, the stipule of a leaflet. 

Stipellate, having stipels. 

Stipitate, having a stipe. 

STiPtJLE, appendage on each side at the 

base of a leaf. 
Stpjct, very straight or close or upright. 
Stbigose, clothed with close-pressed stout 

sharp hairs or scale-like bristles. 
Style, the slender part of a pistiL 
Subulate, tapering to a sharp rigid point. 
SuFFEUTESCENT, or sujfruticose, shrubby at 

the base. 

Terete, cylindrical, long and round. 
Termts'al, at the end or summit. 
Thyese, a thick panicle (Lilac blossoms). 
ToMEXTOSE, clothed with a close and mat- 
ted down. 
ToEULOSE, swollen at intervals. 
TpvU^tcate, as if cut off at the end. 

Umbel, umbrella-like inflorescence. 

Vep.ticillate, whorled, forming a ring 

around the stem. 
Villous, with long soft hairs. 
Viscid, sticky. 


ADVE>*mious, out of the usual place; as 

roots on stems. 
Caudex, an upright rootstock. 
Ccsp, a spear-like point. 
Deltoid, triangular. 

Flaccid, soft, weak, drooping. 

FusLFORM, spindle-shaped. 

GLABP.OUS, smooth. 

IxvoLU CRATE, provided with an involucre. 

LocuLiciDAL, splitting down the middle of 

the back of a cell. 
Lukate, crescent-shaped. 
MucRO^'ULATE, tipped with a minute point. 

al words. 

Papilioxaceous, like the corolla of a pea. 
Periaxth, calyx and corolla together. 

Reticulated, netted-veined. 

Rugose, ^rrinkled, rough with wrinkles. 

Saccate, with sacks or pouches. 

Scabrous, rough or harsh. 

SCARIOUS, thin, dry, membranous. 

Septicidal, splitting between the cells. 

Spadix, a fleshy spike of flowers. 

Spathe, a bract which inwraps flowers. 

Succulent, fleshy, juicy. 

Staminodia, Sterile stamens or bodies like 

Turbinate, top-shaped, an inverted cone. 




All the generic and specific names found in this work are here defined except a few 
of obscure or unkno\m meaning and some which have undoubtedly been overlooked. 
Commemorative names are followed by the names — when known to me — of those thus 
honored. Specific names are given sometimes in one gender, sometimes in another. The 
learner must know that, as a rule, if a specific name ends in ics, a, or nm, it may end in 
-either of the other two to correspond with the gender of the generic name; as. Convol- 
vulus Californirus (Masculine), Polygala Cali/ornica (Feminine), Galium Californkum 
(Xeuter). Or, the specific name may end in is or c, the former agreeing with masculine 
and feminine generic names, the latter with neuter names. The meaning of each name, 
where possible, is given in a form suitable for a common or English name of the plant. 

AcHTLLEiEFOLiA, Yarrow-lcaved. 
AcoxiTUM, the anpient name. 
Adkn'ostoma, glandular stoma (breathing 

AmNis, near, or related to. 
AjUGoroES, Ajuga-Hke; /. e., Hke Bugle, a 

labiate plant. 
Albens, white. 
ALBESCE2CS, becoming white. 
At.bicaulis, white-stemmed. 
Alchemuxa, the Arabic name. 
AxisiNLEFOLirs, Alisma-leaved, /. e., leaves 

like those of Water Plantain. 
At.tjum, the Latin name of Garlic. 
ALX3T0LIA, Alder-leaved. 
AiiELAXCHiEE, the French name. 
A3iEKiCA2fA, American. 
Aii(EXA, charming. 
A:yiOEPHA, without form (flower wanting 

four petals). 

Ajiplectaxs, twining or embracing. 

Amplexicaueis, stem-encircled, i. c, by 
embracing leaves. 

Amsccckia, "William AmsLnck, of Sam- 

AxAGALLis, from a Greek word meaning 
to laugh- 

AxAGAELOEDES, AnagaUis-like; like Pim- 

Axdeeso^ti, Dr. C. L. Anderson, a Califor- 
nia botanist. 

A^TDREWSIA^'A, Dr. Andrews, a pioneer 

AxDPwEwsn, Dr. Andrews, a pioneer bot- 

A^TDEOMEDLA., in honor of the goddess of 
that name. 

AvT-sTovR, from Greek for wind." 

A^fGUSTEFOLiA, narrow-lcaved. 

Ansekixa, from the Latin for goose. 



Aparixe, the Greek name. 

Apocynum, dog-bane; dog-poison. 

Aquatalis, aquatic; water. 

Aquifolicjm, Holly-leaved. 

Aquilegia, from Latin for eagle (the 
petals like eagles' claws). 

Arabis, from Arabia. 

Arenaria, sand, belonging in sand. 

Arboreus, tree-like. 

Arrutifolia, Arbutus -leaved. 

Arbutus, the ancient name. 

Arctostaphylos, Bearberry. 

Ari^folia, Aria-leaved. 

Ar:heria, the Monkish Latin for the Pink. 

Aromatica, aromatic. 

Arvensis, field (growing in cultivated 

Asclepias, Esculapius, God of Medicine. 

AsPER, rough. 

AsPERUM, rough. 

AssuRGENTiFLORA, flowers bending up- 

Attenuatus, slender. 

ATTi:isruiF0LiU3ii slender-lcaved. 

AuDiBERTiA, M. Audibert, a Frenchman. 

Aurea, golden. 

AuRiTA, little-eared (referring to the 

AzuREUs, blue. 

Barbigerum, bearded. 

Bartsi^folia, Bart3ia-leaved. 

B^RBERis, the Arabic name for the Bar- 

BicoLOR, two-colored. 

Biennis, biennial {i. e., flowering the sec- 
ond year and then dying). 

BiFiDUM, bifid, divided. 

BiFLORA, two-flowered. 

BiFOLiUM, two-leaved. 

BiGELOvn, Dr. J. M. Bigelow, a pioneer 

BiLOBA, two-lobed. 

BisCEPTRUM, two-stemmed, 2. e. , two scapes. 

BiSTORTA, twice-twisted. 

Blepharophylla, eyelash-leaved. 

Bloomeria, H. G. Bloomer, a pioneer bot- 

BoLANDERi, H. N. Bolander, a well-known 
botanist of this coast. 

BoREALis, northern. 

BosCHNiAKiA, Boschniaki, a Russian. 

Boykinia, Dr. Boykin, of Georgia. 

Brachycarpa, short-pod. 

Bracteata, bracted. 

Bracteosa, bracted. 

Brassica, old name for cabbage. 

Breviflora, short-flowered. 

Brevifolium, short-leaved. 

Breweri, \Vm. H. Brewer, Botanist of the 
California Geological Survey. 

Brunella, from German name of a throat 
disease which this plant was supposed 
to cure. 

Bcllata, jeweled; blistered. 

BuRSA-PASTORis, shepherd's purse. 

CiERULEUS, deep blue. 
C^SPiTOSA, tufted. 
Californica, California. 
Calochortus, beautiful grass. 
Calycantiius, cup-flower. 
Calycina, cup-like. 
Campanula, bell. 
Campestris, field (uncultivated). 
Canadensis, Canadian. 
Canescens, white-haired; hoary. 
Canina, dog. 
Cannabinum, hemp-like. 
Capitata, capitate (bearing a head of 



Capsella, little-pod. 

Card AMINE, heart -cure. 

Cardixalis, cardinal; chief. 

Card u ACE A, thistle-like. 

Carolinense, Carolina. 

Carolinianum, Carolina. 

Castilleia, Castillejo, a Spanish botanist. 

Castilleioides, Castilleia-like. 

Ceanothus, old name. 

Centranthifolius, Centranthus-leaved. 

CERASiFORjns, cherry-like. 

Cerastium, from Greek for a horn (refer- 
ring to the horn-shaped pods). 

Cercocarpus, tailed-fruit. 

CHAiiMissoNis, A. von Chamisso, a poet 
and liotanist who visited this coast 
with Eschscholtz early in this century. 

CHEIR.A:^^THI^OLIA, wallflower-leaved. 

Cheiranthcs, Arabic name. 

Chilensis, Chili. 

Chimaphila, winter-lover. 

Chlorogalum, greenish milk. 

ChPvYSANTHEMIfolia, Crysanthemum- 

Chrysantha, golden-flowered. 

CiLiATA, hair- fringed. 

CiRC^EA, Circe, the enchantress. 

CiRCiNATA, coiled; crosier-like. 

Clarkia, General Wm. Clarke, who 
crossed the continent in 1803-1806. 

Claytonia, Dr. John Clayton, an early 
botanist of Virginia. 

Clematis, ancient name of a climbing 

Clintonia, Governor De Witt Clinton, of 
New York. 

Collinsia, Zaccheus Collins, of Philadel- 

CoLLiNSioiDES, Collinsia-Hke. 

CoLLOMiA, from Greek for glue, on account 
of the mucilaginous seeds. 

CoMOSUM, hair-tufted. 
CoNCiNNUM, beautiful. 
CoNGESTA, bunched. 
CoRDiFOLius, heart-leaved. 
CoRDYLANTHUS, club-flower. 
CoRYMBosus, corymbose (flowers in a cor- 
CoTUL^FOLiA, Cotula-leaved. 
Crassifolia, thick-leaved. 
Crenatus, crenate. 
Cressa, Cretan woman. 
Cretica, Cretan. 
Crocea, yellow; safi^ron-colorcd. 
Crotellarle, rattle -pod. 
CuNEATUs, wedge-shaped. 
Curvipes, curved-pedicel. 
Cynoglossctm, hound's-tongue. 
Cypripedicm, Venus's slipper. 
Cytisoides, like snail-clover. 

Datura, an altered Arabic name. 
Decorum, comely; pretty. 
Delphinium, dolphin. 
DE^^nssA, lowly; humble. 
Dendromecon, tree-poppy. 
Densiflorus, dense-flowering. 
Densifolia, densely-leaved. 
Dentata, dentate; notched. 
Denticulata, denticulate; finely toothed. 
Dicentra, twice-spurred; two spurs. 
DiCHOTOMUS, two-forked. 
Discolor, variable (as to color or form). 
DrvARiCATA, spreading. 
Dodecatheon, twelve gods. 
DouGLASii, David Douglas, a Scottish ex- 
plorer of the Botany of this coast. 
DuMOSA, bushy. 

EcHiNOSPERMUM, hedgchog-sced. 
Elegans, elegant; beautiful, 
Ellisia, John Ellis, an English botanist. 
E>L4.rginata, emarginate; notched. 



EiDiENANTHE, persistent-flower. 

EpiLOBiTii, a violet on a pod. 

EPviANTHrs, "vroolly-flowered. 

Eriodyctyon, a network of wool (on the 

Eritrichiu^i, -woolly-hair. 

ERODiUii, from Greek for heron (the fruit 
like the bill of a heron). 

ERYSiiiUM, from a word meaning to blister. 

Erythr^a, from a word meaning red. 

EscHscHOLTZiA, J. F. Esclischoltz, a Ger- 
man botanist, who visited California 
early in this century. 

EuBRODiiEA, true Brodisea. 

Ealcifolium, falchion-leaved. 

Farixosa, starchy. 

Fa-SCICULAta, fascicled (referring to the 

Faucibarbatus, beard-throat. 
FiLiFOLiA, thread-leaved. 
FLAimrLA, a little banner or flame. 
Flortbuxda, many-flowered. 
FoLiOLOSA, leafy, 
Formosa, beautifully formed. 
Fragaria, fragrance. 
Fraxinus, from a Latin word meaning 

easily split. 
Fritillaria, from Latin for checker-board, 

the petals of the first-named species 

being checkered. 
FucATA, colored, 
FuLVUM, tawny; yellow. 

Gallica, Gallic (Fren'ch). 

Gacltheria, Dr. Gaulthier, of Quebec. 

Gentiana, Gentius, king of Illyria. 

GiGANTEA. gigantic; huge. 

GiLEA, Philip Gil. 

GiTHOPSis, resembling Gith (Corn-cockle). 

Glabrus, smooth. 

Glabratus, smooth. 

Glandulosus, glandular. 

Glaucus, bluish-gray, or with a bloom. 

Glaux, from Greek for sea-green. 

Glutinosus, glutinous; sticky. 

Glycy-rrhiza, sweet-root. 

GoDETiA, Dr. Godet. 

GoiiPHOCARPUS, nail-pod. 

Gracile, slender. 

Gracilentus, slender. 

Graciliflorus, slender-flowered. 

Grandiflora, grand-flowered. 

Greenei, Ptev. E. L. Greene, who has dili- 
gently explored the Botany of this 

Gy3IN0Carpus, naked -fruited; naked-pod. 

Hastatus, spear-bearing. 

Hebecarpus, blunt-pod (?) 

Hederaceus, Ivy-like. 

Heliotropium, from Greek for sun and 

Heteropiiyllus, variously leaved. 

Heuchera, J. H. Heucher, a German bot- 

Hexandra, six-stamened. 

HiRStJTissnrus, bristly, or very hairy. 

Hispidula, bristly; prickly. 

HUMILIS, low; small. 

Hypericum, the Greek name. 

IiiciroLius,. Holly-leaved. 
Incants, gray; hoary, 
Icisit:^, incised; cut. 
Inconspicuus, inconspicuous. 
In'signis, remarkable; marked. 
IxTEGERRiMUS, most vigorous. 
IxTEGRiFOLiA, entire-leaved. 
Intermedius, intermediate. 
IxTERTEXTUS, intertwined. 
Involucratus, involucrate. 



Iris, rainbow, 
IxioiDES, Ixia-like. 

Jl'NCEa, rush-like. 

Jcssr.4:A, Bernard de Jussieu, founder of 
the Natural System. 

Laeiatje, from labia, a lip. 

Lacinatcs, laciniate. 

Lactea, milk-white. 

L^viCAULis, smooth-stemmed. 

Lacunosum, pitted. 

Laxceolatus, lanceolate. 

Latifqlius, broad-leaved. 

Lathyrus, the Greek name of a similar 

Latipes, broad-pediceled. 
Laxus. loose. 
LEPiGONu:xr, scaly- joint. 
Lepidium, scale-pod. 
Leptophyllus, slender-leaved. 
Lepidotcs, scaly (?) 
Lepidus, charming. 
Leptosiphox, slender-tubed. 
Lemmoni, J. G. Lemmon, a very successful 

California botanist. 
Leucodermis, white-skinned. 
Leucocephalus, white-headed. 
Leucocrixum, white-lil}'. 
Leucophyllus, white-leaved. 
Lewisia, Capt. M. Lewis, who crossed the 

continent with Clarke in IS03-1806. 
LiGUSTiciFOLius, Lovage-leaved. 
LiLiACEUS, lily-like. 
LiMXANTHES, pond-flower. 
LmoNiUM, mud-plant (an old generic 

name. ) 
LiMOSELLA, from limus, mud. 
LiNARiA, from Linum, the botanical name 

of Flax. 
LiNEARrFOLiUM, narrow-leaved. 

Lrs'iFLORA, flax-flowered; the Latin name 

LiTHOSPERMorDES, like Lithospermum. 
LiTTORALis, sea-beach. 
LoEATUS, lobed. 
LoxGEFLORUS, long-flowcrcd. 
LoxGELOBA, long lobed. 
LoNGiPES, long-pediceled. 
LuTEOLUS, yellowish. 
LuTEus, yellow. 
Lupixrs, wolf. 
LupuLiNUS, hop-like. 
LuciDUS, bright, transparent. 
Lycopus, wolf-foot. 
Lycopsoides, Lycopus-like. 
Lythrum, from Greek for blood. 

!^Li.CRANTH^s, large -flowered. 

^Iacrocera, large-horned. 

Macrocarpa, large-fruited. 

Macrostachya, large-spiked. 

Macrothecum, large-anthered. 

;ML^ccxatus, spotted. 

^rATANTHE^njM:, mountain nymph. 

Major, greater; larger. 

]N1alva, from a word meaning soft. 

IklALV^iiFLORUS, Mallows-flowered. 

Malv^^folius, Mallows-leaved. 

Mariposa, butterfly. 

^Maritimtm, coast. 

Meadia, Dr. Mead, of Illinois. 

^Meconopsis, Poppy-like. 

Medicago, from Media, its native country. 

iMEDiL'S, middle. 

Megarrhiza, big-root. 

Melilotus, honey-flower. 

Mentha., from the name of a Nymph fa- 
bled to have been changed to mint. 

Menyanthes, month-flower. 

Menziesh, Dr. Archibald Menzies, a com- 
panion of Vancouver. 




Dr. C. Mentzel. 

Prof. F. C. Mertens, of Bre- 

Mesembryanthemu^i, middav-flower. 

MiCRANTHUS, small-flowered. 

MiCROCEPHALUM, small-headed. 

MiCROCARPUS, small-fruited. 

MiCROMERiA, small-part. 

MiMULUS, ape; mimic. 

MiNEATUS, vermilion-colored. 

Minimus, smallest. 

Minor, smaller. 

MoDESTUS, modest. 

MoLLUGO, the Latin name. 

MoNTANUS, mountain. 

MoNARDELLA, little Monarda, a genus 

named for Nicholas Monardes, a writer 

on medicinal plants. 
MoscHATUS, musky. 
MuHLENBERGii, Dr. H. Muhlenberg, an 

American botanist. 
MuiLLA, Allium reversed. 
MuLTiCAULis, many-stemmed. 
MuRiCATUS, rough, with hard points. 
Myrtifolius, myrtle-leaved. 

Nanus, dwarf. 

Nemerosa, w^ood; forest. 

Nemophila, grove-lover. 

NicoTiANA, John Nicot, who introduced 

tobacco into Europe. 
NiTEUS, beautiful; bright. 
NiTiDUM, shining. 
NuDiCAULE, naked-stemmed. 
NuDUS, naked. 
NuTTALLiA, Thomas Nuttall, botanist and 


Obtusifolia, blunt-leaved. 
OcELLATA, spotted witli little eyes. 
OccrDENTALis, wcstem. 

OENOTHERA, vrine - sucker (roots cause 

Officinalis, medicinal. 
Orbicularis, round. 
Oregana, Oregon. 
Orthocarpus, erect-fruit. 
OvATA, egg-shaped (leaves). 
OxYCARPUM, sharp-fruited. 
Oxycaryum, sharp-nut. 

Pjsonia, the ancient name. 

Pacifica, Pacific. 

Palustris, swamp; marsh. 

Papillosus, warty. 

Parviflorus, small-flowered. 

PARViFOLirs, small-leaved. 

Patagonica, Patagonian. 

Paucisecta, few-lobed. 

Pectocarya, comb-toothed nut. 

Pedatus, foot-shaped. 

Pedicularis, from pediculus, a louse. 

Peltatum, shield; shield-shaped. 

Penduliflora, hanging flower; drooping- 

Penicillata, brush-like. (Stigma wath a 

tuft of hairs). 
Pentstemon, five stamens. 

Perfoliata, perfoliate (the stem growing 
through the leaf). 

Pharnaceoides, Ginseng-like. 

Philajdelphus, Philadelphus, a King of 

PiCTA, painted; colored. 

Pilosissiivia, most-hairy. 

PiNNATA, pinnate; feather-like. 

PiRUS, old Latin name of the pear tree. 

Platystemon, flat-stamen. 

Platystigma, flat-stigma. 

Pluriflora, many-flowered. 

PoGOGYNE, bearded-pistil. 



PoLTGALA, much milk (said to increase 

secretion of milk). 
PoLYSEPALUM, many-sepaled 
PoMERiDiANUM, after-noon. 
Peenanthoides, Prenanthus-like. 
Prosartes, from Greek to hang. 
Prostata, prostrate. 
PsoRALiA, scurf. 
Pterospora, wing-seed. 
Ptelea, Greek for elm. 
PtJLCHELLA, beautiful. 
PuMiLA, dwarf; little. 
Ptjngens, pungent; biting. 
Purpurascens, growing purple; purplish. 
Pycnanthemum, dense-flowers. 
Pycnantha, dense-flowering. 

Quercifolia, oak-leaved 
QuADRANGULARis, four-sided. 

E,ACEMOSA, racemose; raceme-bearing. 

Eadicans, rooting. 

Ramosissibia, branching; full of branches. 

Ranunculus, from Latin for frog (some 
of the species aquatic). 

EiAPHANUS, quick-grower. 

Pariflorum, seldom-flowering. 

Eecurva, recurved. 

Pediviva, reviving. 

Phomboidea, rhomboidal. 

Rhus, red (the prevailing color of the 
plentiful fruit in the genus). 

Pibes, the Arabic name. 

PiGlDUS, stifi"; rigid. 

PrvuLARis, river. 

PojiANZOFFiA, Nicholas Pomanzoff, a Rus- 
sian nobleman, who early in this cen- 
tury sent Kotzebue (accompanied by 
Chamisso and Eschscholtz) to this 

Rosa, the ancient name. 

RosEUS, rosy. 

RoTUNDiFOLiA, round-leavcd. 
RuBESCENS, reddening; reddish. 
RuBUS, red (the color of the fruit). 
RusTiCA, country; rustic. 

Salvia, from a Latin word meaning to 

Sambucus, from the name of an ancient 
musical instrument, said to have been 
made of Elder. 

Sanguinea, bloody. 

Sarcodes, from the Greek for flesh. 

Sarmentosa, running (as strawberries). 

Sativa, cultivated; tame. 

Saxifraga, rock-breaker. 

ScoLioPUS, worm-peduncle. 

ScROPHULARiA, scrofula cure. 

Scutellaria, from scutella, a dish (be- 
cause of the calyx). 

Serpylloides, Thyme-like. 

Serratum, serrate; toothed 

Sessile, sessile; stemless. 

Sessilifolia, sessile-leaved. 

Shallon, the Indian name. 


SiLENE, from a Greek word meaning saliva* 

Simplex, simple. 

SiTCHENSis, Sitka. 

SoLDANELLA, the generic name of another 

SoREDiATUS, covered with granules. 

Sparsiflorus, sparse-flowered. 

Spathulata, spatulate. 

Specioscts, showy. 

Spectabilis, notable; admirable. 

Speculabia, from speculum, a looking- 

Spir^a, old name of Meadow Sweet. 

Stachys, the ancient name. 

Stachyoides, Stachys-like. 



Statice, the ancient name. 
Stellaria, from stella, a star. 
Stellata, starry; star-like. 
Stipularis, stipulate. 
Stiveri, C. H. Stivers 
Strictum, upright. 
Strigulosus, bristly. 
Strobilacea, cone-like (a pme cone). 
Strobilixa, little cone. 
Stropholirion, twisted-lily. 
SuBPiNNATA, nearly-pinnate. 
Symphoricarpus, cluster-fruit. 
Symplocarpus, united-fruit. 

Taxacetifolius, Tansy-leaved. 
Tatula, an old generic name (?). 
Telliivia, anagram of Mitella. 
Tenax, tough. 
Texella, tender; delicate. 
Texer, soft, tender. 
Texuiloba, slender-lobed. 
Texuifolius, thin-leaved. 
Tessellata, checkered (seeds). 
Thysanocarpus, fringe-pod. 
Thyrsii'lorus, thyrse-flowered. 
Ti.\RELLA, a little mitre (the pod). 
TixcTORiA, useful as a dye. 
ToMENTOsus, woolly; tomentose. 
Trachyaxdra, rough anther. 
Tridentatus, three - toothed; three- 
Trichantha, hair-flowered. 
Trichophyllus, hair-leaved. 
Tricolor, three-colored. 
Trifidum, three-parted. 
Triflorus, three-flowered. 
Trifoliata, three-leaved. 
Trifolium, three-leaves. 

Trillium, triple (leaves, petals, etc., in 

Trtjxcata, truncate. 
TuBEROSA, tuber-bearing. 

Umbellata, umbellate. 
Umbelliferum, umbel-bearing. 
UxDULATA, wavy. 
Uniflorus, one-flowering. 
UxiFOLiATA, one-leaved. 
Ursinus, bear. 

Vaccixnium, the ancient name. 
Vagaxs, wandering; spreading. 
Vancouveria, Capt. George Vancouver, 
who explored this coast in 1792-1794. 
Vexenosus, deadly-poisonous. 
Venosu-S, veiny. 
Vexustcs, beautiful. 
Vestita. clothed; covered. 
Verxicosa, varnished. 
Veroxica, for St. Veronica (?). 
Verticillata, whorled. 
ViLLOSUS, hairy. 
VisciDULA, sticky. 
ViRGixiEXSis, Virginian. 
ViTis, the ancient name. 
Vulgaris, common. 

WnippLEA, Gen. A. W. Whipple, who 
visited this coast in 1849, in command 
of a Government Survey Party. 

Xerophyllum, diy-leaf. 

Yucca, the Indian name. 

Zauschxeria, M. Zauschner, a Bohemian 

Zygadexus, yoked-glands. 


*.^* The names of orders are in capitals. Figures following names in parentheses 
denote the numbers of the species to which the common names apply; e. g., Bahj-Eyes 
is the common name of the third species of Nemophila. 


Abronia lOi 

AcEena 54 

Acer 37 

Aconite ( Aconitum) 19 

Adenostoma 53 

iEsculu3 37 

Alchemilla 54 

Alfalfa 44 

Alfilaria (Erodium) 33 

Alfillarilla (Erodium) 33 

Al.ium 112 


Alisma 108 

Alum-root 57 

Amelancliier 54 

Amorpha 47 

Ams.nckia 84 


Anemopsis 107 

Anemone 16 

Antirrliinum 90 

Aphyllon 96 


Apocynum 73 

Aquilegia 18 

Arabia 23 

AKACEiE 120 

Aralia 63 


Arbutus 69 

Arctostaphylos 69 

A"enaria 28 


Aristolochia 104 

Armeria 72 

Arrow-grass 108 

Asarum , 104 


Asclepias 73 

Ash 73 

Astragalus 47 

Audibertia 100 

Azalia 70 

Baby-Eyes (Nemophila, 3).,.. 81 

Barberry 19 

Beard-tongue (Pentstemon) . 91 

Bedstraw (Gralium) 65 

Bellflower 68 


Berberis 19 

Big-Eoot 63 

Bind-weed 121 

Blaeberry 52 

Bleeding-Heart (Dicentra, 1) 22 

Bio meria 113 

Biue-curls 102 

Blue-eyed Grass 110 

Boisduvalia 62 


Boschniakia 97 

Box-Elder 38 

Boykinia 56 

Brasenia 20 

Braesica 23 

Brevoortia 115 

Brodiasa 113 

Brunella 101 

Buckbcan 75 

Buckeye 37 

Bur-Clover 44 

Burning bush (Euonymus) .. 35 

Buttercup 17 

Butterfly Lily 118 

Button-bush 65 

Calandrinia 29 

Oaliforuia Holly (Hetero- 

meles 54 

California Lilac 36 

California Poppy (Esch- 

Bchoitzia 21 

Calliprora 114 

Calochortus 117 


Calycanthus 55 

Campanula 68 



Camassia 115 


Capsella 24 

Cardamine 23 

Carpet-Weed (Mollugo) 63 


Castilleia 93 

Catchfly (Silene) 27 

Ceanot JUS 36 


Cephalauthus ... 65 

Cerastium 28 

Cercucarpus 52 

Chamiso 53 

Cheiranthus 23 


Chenopodium 105 

Cherry 51 

Chia 100 

Chickweed 28 

Chimapliila 71 

Chlorogalum 115 

Choi'izanthe lOG 

Circaea 62 


Clarkia 61 

Claytonia 30 

Cleavers 65 

Clematis 16 

Clintonia (67) 119 

Clover 42 

Coffee-Tree (Rhamnus, 2) 35 

Co.linsia 90 

Collomia 70 

Columbine 18 



Convolvulus 121-86 

Corallorhiza 109 

Coral-Root 109 

Cordylanthus 95 


Cornus 63 

Com-Spurry 29 




Cotyledon 58 

Cranesbill 33 


Cream-Cups 20 

Cressa 87 



Currant, 58 

Cuscuti 87 

Cynoglossum 86 

Damsonium 108 

Datura 83 

Delphinium 18 

Dendromecon 21 

Di.eutra 22 

Dirca 106 

Dock 105 

Dodecatheon 72 

Dodder 87 

Dogwood (Cornus, 1) 63 

Dowuingia 67 

Ear-Drops (Dicentra) 22 

Echinospermum 85 

Elder 64 

Ellisia 81 

Emmenanthe 82 

Enchanter s Nightshade (Cir- 

csea) 62 

Epilobium 69 

Epipactis 109 


Eriodictyou 83 

Eri igonum 105 

Eritrichium 85 

Erodium 33 

Erysimum 23 

Erythrsea 75 

Eschscholtzi.i 21 

Eucharidium , 62 

Euonymus 35 

Evening Primrose 60 

Feverwort (Scrophularia). .. 90 


Figwort 90 

Filaria (Filaree) 33 

Flag 110 

ilax 32 

Fragaria 53 

Fraxinus 73 

Fringe-pod 25 

Fritillaria 116 


Galium 65 

(jarlic 112 

Garrya 64 

Gaultheria 70 

Gentiana 75 

Gentian 75 



Geranium.,.. .33 

Gilia 76 

Ginger 104 

Githop>is 67 

Glasswoit 105 

Glaux 73 

G]ycyrrhiza 47 

Godetia 61 

Gom hocarpus 74 

Gooseberry 58 

Goo efoot 105 

Grape 37 

Greek Valerian 80 

Green Lily 117 


Hedge Mustard 

Hedge Nettle (Stachys) 





Heron's Bill (Erodium) 




Honeysuckle (Aquilegia) .... 




Horse Nettle 


Hound's - tongue (Cynoglos- 






Indian Hemp 73 

Indian Lettuce (Claytonia, 1) . SO 

miDACE^E 110 

Iris no 

Jamestown-Weed (Datura) ... 88 

Jerusalem Oak 105 

Jussi^a 59 

Knot-Grass 105 


Lace-pod 25 

Ladies' Tresses 109 

Lady's-mantle (Alchemilla).. 54 

Lady's-^lipper 109 

Lamb's-quarters 105 

Larkspur 18 

LathjTUS 49 


Laurel 100 

Lavatera 31 

Leatherwood 106 

Leek , 112 


Lepidium 24 


Lepigonum 29 

Leucocrinum 120 

Lewisia 30 

Lilac 36 

LILIACEa: 110 

Li.ium 116 

Lily 116 

Lily-Bell 118 

Limosella 93 

Limnaiithes 34 


Linaria 90 

Linum 32 

Liquorice 47 

LOASaCE^ 62 


Lonicera 65 

Lou^ewort ( Pedicularis) 96 

Lovegr-jve (Nemophila, 1) . . . 81 

Lucern 44 

Lupine 39 

Lupiuus ; . . . . 39 

Lycoi)US 98 


Lythrum 59 

Madrono 69 

Mahonia (Berberis) 19 

Maianihemum 115 

Mallow 31 

Malva 31 


Manzunita 69 

Maple 37 

MarshRosemary 72 

Meadow-Rue (Thahctrum)... 17 

Meconopsis 21 

Med.cjgo 44 

Megarrhiza 63 

Melilotus 43 

Mentha 98 

Mentzelia 02, 121 

Menyanthes 75 

Mesembiyanthemum 63 

Microcala 75 

Micromeria 99 

Milkweed 73 

Mimulus 92 

Mint 98 

Mock-Orange 57 

MoUugo 63 

Monardel'a 98 

Monkej'- flower (Mimulus)... 92 

Monk's Hood ,... 19 

Morning- Glory (Convolvu- 
lus) 86 

Mosquito-Bills (Dodecatheon) 72 

Mountain- Balm 83 

Mountain Mahogany 52 

Mouse-tail 17 

Mudwort 93 

Muilla 112 

MiUlein 89 

Musk-Plant... 92 

Mustard 23 



Myosurus 17 

Negundo 38 

Neillia 51 

Nemo'hila 81 

Nicotiana 89 

Nightshade 88 

Nine-Bark 51 

Nuphar 20 

Nutca lia 51 



CEnothera 60, 121 

OJ,EAC .^ 73 


Onion 112 


Oregon-Crabapple 54 

Oregon Grape (Berberis, 2) .. 

Oreodaphue 106 


Orthocarpus 91 

Oso i.erry 51 

Oxalis 34 

Pseonia 19 

Paeony 19 

Painted-cup 93 

Pansy (Viola) 26 


Pea-Yin3 (Vicia) 48 

Pectocarya 86 

Peppergrass 24 

Pedicularis 96 

Pentstemon 91, 121 

Phacelia 81, 121 

Philidelphus 57 

Photinia.... 54 

Piclicringia 39 

Pigwoed 105 

Pin-Clover 33 

Pimpernel 73 

Pipe-Vine 104 

Pipsissewa 71 

Pirus ; 54 


Plantago 103 

Plantain 103 

PI ty-temon 20 

Platystigma 21 

Plectritis 66 


Pogogyne 99 

PoisonOak 38 


Polemonium 80 

Polygala 27 



Polygonum 105 

Pond-Lily 20 

Poor - man's Weather - glass 

(Anagallis) 73 



Potentilla 53 


Prosartes 119 

Prince's-Pine (Chimaphila).. 71 

Prunus 50 

Psoralea 46 

Ptelea 34 

Pterospora 71 

Pterostegia 106 

l^ycnanthemum 98 

Pyrola 71 

Radish 25 


Ranunculus 16 

Raphanus 25 

I'vasijberiy 52 

Rattle-weed 47 


Rhamnus 35 

Rhododendron 70 

Rhus 33 

Ribes 57 

Rib-grass (Plantago) 103 

RomaDzoffia 83 


Rosa 54 

Jiose 54 


Rubus 52 

Rumex 105 


Sage 100 

Salal 70 

Salicornia 165 

SalmonBerry 52 

Salvia 100 

Sambucus 64 

SandSpurry 29 

Sand Verbena 104 

Sandwort 28 


Sarcodes.... 71 


Saxifraga 55 


Saxifrage 55 

Scoli 'pus 119 

Scrophularia 90 


Scutenaria 101 

Sea Milkwort. 73 

Sedum 58 

Self-heal 101 

Service-Berry 54 

Seubertia 114 

Shad-Berry 54 

Sheep Sorrel 105 

Shepherd's Purse 24 

Shooting-Star (Dodecatheon). 72 

Sidalcia 31 

Silene 27 

Silver-weed 53 

Sisymbrium 24 


Sisyrinchium 110 \ 

Skull-cap 101 I 

Skvink-Cabbage 120 

Skunk-weed (G. squarrosa) .. 78 

Smartweed 105 ^ 

Smilacina 115 i 

Knaydragon 90 

Snow-Berry 64 I 

Suow-Hant 71 

Soap-Root 115 


Solanum 88, 121 

Solomon's Seal 115 i 

Sorrel 34 "j 

Specularia 67 i 

Spergala 29 

Spikenard 63 i 

Spiraea 51 ' 

S,.iranthes 109 I 

Sj.hacele 100 

Squash Fam. (Cucurbitaceae) . 63 ! 

Spury 29 

Squirrel's Grandfather (Bos- j 

chniakia) 97 ; 

Stachys 101 I 

Star-Flower 73 

Statice 72 j 

SteUaria 28 1 

St. John's-wort 30 | 

Stick-seed (Echinospermum) 85 

Stune-crop 58 ] 

Stramonium _.. 88 j 

Strawberry 53 i 

Strawberry Tree (Arbutus) . . 69 ' 

Strept pus 119 | 

Sun- Dial (Lupinus) 39 i 

Sweet-clover 43 

Sweet-scented Shrub 55 

Symphoricarpus 64 

Symplocarpus 120 

Tare 48 

Tellima 56 

Tha ictrum 17 j 

Thermopsis 39 j 

Thimble-berry 52 

Three-leaved Nightshade 120 

Thrift 72 I 


Thysanocarpus 25 

Tiarella 5T 

Tiger Liiy 116 

TiilfBa 59 I 

Toad-Flax 90 

Tobacco 89 

To:lon (Heteromeles) 54 

Tonella 121 

Tree Mallow 31 

Triehostema 102 

Trientalis 73 

Trifolium 42 

Triqlochin 108 j 

rriilium 120 | 

Tropidocarpum 24 

Twisted-Stalk 119 I 

138 [Total pp. 176] 



Umbellaria 106 

dmbelliferj: 63 

Vaccinum 69 


Vancouveria 20 

Venus Looking-glass (Specu- 

laria) 67 

Yerbascum 89 


Veratrum 120 

Verbena 103 

Veronica 93 

Vetch 49 

Vicia 48 


Vine Maple 37 

Viola 26 

VIOL\CE^ 25 

Violet 26 

Virgin's Bower 16 


Vitis 37 

Wall-flower (Cbeirantlms) .. 23 

Water Plantain 108 

Water Horehcund 98 

Watershield 20 

Wheat-Thief (Amsinckia) ... 84 

Whipplea 57 

White Forget-me-not (Eri- 

trichium) 85 

Wild Hyacinth 115 

Willow-herb 59 

Wintertrreen (Pyrola).. ..70 (71) 

Wood Anemone 17 

Wormseed 105 

Xerophyllum 120 

Verba Buena 99 

Verba Santa 83 

Yucca 116 

Zauschneria 59 

Zygadenus 120 


Acacia 3Sb 

Alder 106 

AInus 106 

AmaiantacesB 105 

Arct >mecon 20b 

Argemone 20b 

Bayberry 106 

Betuaceas 106 

Birch 106 

Canbya 20b 

Cercis 3f<b 

Chicalote 20b 

Chinquapin 106 

Cottonwood 106 



BarlingtoDia 20 

Digitalis 88b 

1 oxglove 88b 

Fran enia 20 

Isomeris 20 

Juglans 106 

M'rsquit 38b 

Mvrica... 106 

Oak 106 

Pepper 88 

Pepper Tree 38 

Piperacese 105 1 

Platanus 106 I 


Poplar 106 

Pot;, to 88 

Prickly Poppy 20b 

Quaking Asp 106 

QuercTis 106 

Romneya 20b 

Salicaceae 106 

Styrax 20 

Sycamore 106 

Umbellularia 106 

Walnut 106 

Willow 106 

Verba Maosa 106 

New York Botanical Garden Library 

QK 194 .R35 1882 ^ . gen 

Rattan, Volney/A popular California flor 

3 5185 00134 9677 

S9I ^ 

1^ ^